Saturday, 2 July 2016


Goa has rapidly gained worldwide recognition as a tourist hot spot and has the distinction of being the most sought after destination, having ranked among the top ten in the Millennium year by BBC. This acted as a huge boost for tourism in Goa and the initial few years, post 2000 saw double digit growth in tourist inflow into the state. But after this initial spurt, from 2004 onwards the growth slowed down substantially with a couple of years in fact registering negative growth rates in tourist numbers. According to the tourism officials the slowdown can be attributed to several factors like, global economic meltdown and also the negative publicity garnered by Goa pertaining to issues like Safety of Women, Drugs, assault on foreign nationals, etc. In today’s times of 24X7 coverage by TV news channels and print media all these negative aspects of Goa get highlighted more often than not. Two of the biggest incidents in Goa which captured the national media space were: 1) The Scarlet Keeling Murder (Feb 2008) which portrayed Goa as unsafe for women and even described it as the rape capital of India. 2) The Nigerian clash with the Goan Police (Nov 2013) portrayed Goa as a heaven for Drug Cartels. The objective of the paper is to study the impact of all this negative news flow on Brand Goa. The scope of the study is limited only to the domestic tourists who visited Goa during the month of August 2015. - See more at: .


- . Purpose:-The main aim of the study was to find out the online shopping consumer behaviour in developing countries with special reference to Saudi Arabia. The researcher investigates the influence of demographic factors, psychographic factors and store variables on online hopping behaviour. Design/methodology/approach:- The objectives of this study were addressed by using a quantitative research strategy, based on questionnaire survey of the people living in Jeddah city in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was structured and close-ended measuring the intensity of response on five point Likert scale from 1 to 5. The respondents included Saudis and Non Saudis working and living here. Convenience random sampling method was used to administer the questionnaire on sample size of 400 respondents. Findings:- The findings of the study showed that the people are well aware of online shopping concept, they interested in buying online, Saudis are more interested than non-Saudis, females are more interested than males, psychographic factors do not influence the online shopping behaviour however, store-variables play important role in online shopping decision. Practical Implications:-This paper provides useful information in understanding the e-consumer behaviour in Saudi Arabia, especially the factors which influence the decision of online shopping. Originality/value:- This is one the few studies on online shopping behaviour of the e-consumers in developing countries especially in the middle-east. - Seemore at: .


Manuscript History: Received: 15 March 2016 Final Accepted: 12 May 2016 Published Online: May 2016 Key words: Microfinance, Social empowerment, Self Help groups, Etc. *Corresponding Author Shailaja Kheni. India is a nation filled with tremendous wealth & prosperity. Among the successful emerging economies in the world India occupies a prominent place. India’s performance in recent years has been among best in the world. On the other side becoming more complex because of the various Social, political, economical & Technological changes occurring at a rapid pace for growth. India is filled with regional, cultural and socio- economic differences that have made the status of women complicated and her contribution often goes unrecognised. Due to cultural and traditional aspects, a Women’s presence has been a question of survival. She fears for society, lives in society with all problems as Indian culture makes them to bear everything silently and run the family. It is more difficult for women to get out of poverty than men because they lack money, resources, land and property and get less paid than men for the same job (Premchander 2009). Our Women have a great part to play in the progress of our country, as the mental and physical contact of women with life is much more lasting and comprehensive than that of men. Women must be empowered by enhancing their awareness, knowledge, skills and technology use efficiency, thereby facilitating overall development of the society. The early 90’s saw the reshaping of strategies of socio –economic development and the emphasis gradually shifted from “development to empowerment”. Women play a significant role in domestic and socio-economic life of the society and therefore holistic national development is not possible without developing this segment of the society (Ravindra c satpute 2012). Low level of skills, lack of access to training, facilities and credit, literacy, ignorance coupled with their invisible contribution to family economy, restricted mobility as a result of gender bias and lack of linkage facilities are some of the contributory factors for the backwardness of the women in the rural areas. At this juncture, organizing the poor women in a group is the need of the hour. Thus the SHG is one that is considered as the movement of self development. The SHG is the institutional informal setup through which the micro credit is routed by the formal and semi formal micro finance institutions to assist the poor women. Now a day’s women are depending on microfinance institutions than men. They believe that a woman is a small credit risk and often benefits the whole family (S.Sarumathi and Dr.K.Mohan 2011) The main aim of microfinance is to empower women .This induced the researcher to focus more on the empowerment of women who participates in Microfinance and its activities. Kalaburagi is considered as one of the most backward districts of Karnataka. Majority of people in this district are living in the rural areas and most of them depend upon Agriculture for their livelihood. There are many Microfinance institutions which are operating in the districts and the number of SHGs is in thousands. The number of Groups is increasing year after year; this made an interesting fact to know the reason behind this improvement. What makes women to join the Self Help Groups, are they socially empowered. Therefore the Objective of the researcher here is to study to what extent women beneficiaries of microfinance in kalaburagi district have succeeded in achieving their Goals and have empowered Socially. - See more at: .


The purposes of this research were 1) to study the relationship between the components of social entrepreneurs and economic and social security, and 2) to present the causal relationship model between the components of social entrepreneur and economic and social security. The researcher applied the quantitative research method in conducting this research, using the questionnaires to collect the primary data from 380 samples. The statistics used in this study are Pearson Correlation, and Structural Equation Model (SEM). The research results show that the components of social entrepreneurs in the aspect of vision of entrepreneurs, social innovation, morality/virtue, and leadership for social change, all these components have the relationship with economic and social security. The analysis of the causal relationship between the components of social entrepreneur influencing economic and social security is relevant to the empirical data, by that all components of social entrepreneur have an influence on economic and social security. - See more at: .


The purposes of this research were 1) to study the components of social entrepreneurs influencing economic and social security; 2) to compare the attitude of people towards social entrepreneurs classified by the demographic profiles; and 3) to present the forecast equation model of the components of social entrepreneurs influencing economic and social security. The researcher applied the quantitative research method in conducting this study, using the questionnaires to collect the primary data from 380 samples. The statistics used in this study are percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, F-test (One Way ANOVAs), Pearson Correlation, and Multiple Regression Analysis. The research results show that the respondents, who have different age, business type, and operational period, have different attitude towards the components of social entrepreneur with the statistical significance at the level of .05; while the respondents who have different gender, and education level, have the same attitude towards the components of social entrepreneurs. The forecast equation model of the components of social entrepreneurs influencing economic and social security is consisted of 4 components, which are leadership for social change, morality/virtue, social innovation, and vision of entrepreneurs. - See more at:.


. The purposes of this research were 1) to study components of sustainable happiness society, 2) to study components influencing sustainable happiness society, 3) to analyze the causal relationship between components influencing sustainable happiness society, and 4) to develop the causal relationship model of sustainable happiness society. The researcher applied the quantitative method, collecting the primary data by distributing questionnaires to 350 samples who are industrial entrepreneurs in Rayong province. The statistics used in this research are frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson Correlation, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and Structural Equation Model (SEM). The research results were found that the correlation between six component factors of sustainable happiness society is positive, which means all 6 factors have the relationship in the same direction with the statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The results of the causal relationship model of sustainable happiness society were found that corporate social responsibility (CSR), Sangkhahawatthu IV (SAN), Saraniyadhamma VI (SAR), and Sappurisadhamma VII (SAP) have an influence on sustainable happiness society (SHS) with the statistical significance at the level of .01. Considering that /df must not exceed 2 ( /df = 1.951), CFI must be more than .90 (CFI = 0.996), GFI must be more than .90 (GFI = 0.991), AGFI must be more than .90 (AGFI = 0.962), RMSEA must not exceed .05 (RMSEA = 0.052), and SRMR must be less than .05 (SRMR = 0.019), the causal relationship model of sustainable happiness society created by the researcher is relevant to the empirical data. - See more at:.

Green Supply Chain Management in India: An Overview. - .

The green supply chain management (GSCM) is a very influential way to distinguish or separate an organization from its competitors and it can have significant impact on the success plan of the organization. With increased responsiveness to corporate social responsibility and the requirement to meet the terms with eco-friendly policy, green supply chain management (GSCM) is becoming increasingly important for Indian industries. The Companies that have adopted GSCM practices with a focus on distribution activities have successfully improved their business and environmental performance on many levels. This paper focuses on the major barriers in the implementation of Green Supply Chain management in Organization. - See more at: .


This study investigates the role of entrepreneurial orientation in shaping firm innovative performance. A cross sectional survey using questionnaire was conducted on a sample of 261 manufacturing SMEs operating in Kano State, Nigeria. Pearson correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to analyze the data. The results indicate significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and firm innovation, and that among the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation, pro activeness contributes most to innovation. Firms should therefore constantly evaluate the level of their entrepreneurial orientation in order to find out whether it is sufficiently adopted, and that they should concentrate on pro activeness. - See more at: 


. This study aims to analyze and explain 1) Relationship of auditors competences, auditor independence, audit experience, organizational culture, and leadership. 2) the auditors competences, auditor independence, audit experiences, organizational culture, and leadership directly in the professionalism of auditors. 3) the effect of auditors competences, auditor independence, audit experience, organizational culture, and leadership are directly or indirectly on audit quality. 4) Direct effect of professionalism auditor to audit quality. The research method using exploratory method by conducting a survey on General Inspectorate State Ministries and Non-Ministerial Agencies as the Situs. The analysis tool used is Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with sample used in this research were 250 respondents from those in Central Government. Hypothesis testing results show that the variable competence of auditors, auditor independence, audit experience, organizational culture, and leadership, on average, have a strong relationship. The results showed the professionalism of auditors directly and significantly affected by the variable competence of auditors amounted to 23.8%, 13.3% auditor independence, audit experience 25.7%, 17.7% organizational culture, and leadership at 27.4%. Medium quality audit directly and significantly affected by the variable competence of auditors amounted to 25.1%, the independence of auditors of 12%, 20.9% of audit experience, and organizational culture of 14.7%, and the leadership has no direct influence on the quality of the audit, and direct leadership does not have a significant effect on audit quality. The theoretical implications of leadership should be able to affect audits quality indirectly, by first influencing professionalism on will have an impact on audit quality. - See more at: .


. This study examines the impact of market interest rate fluctuations on the profitability of Islamic banks in Kenya. Kenya is fast developing as the Islamic finance hub of East Africa. Gulf African Bank and the First Community Bank have operated in Kenya as fully fledged Islamic banks since the year 2007. The Central Bank of Kenya has also licensed several conventional banks to offer Islamic banking products. Most studies done on the profitability determinants of Islamic banks have been mainly focusing on the Middle East countries. This study therefore contributes to literature by examining the Islamic banks within the East African region. Islamic banking financial model does not involve the charging or receiving of interest which is prohibited under the shariah rules. As opposed to the conventional banks which derive their profits mainly from interest charged on borrowings, islamic banks derive their income from arrangements that include joint ventures (musharakah) as well as cost-plus (murahaba) and profit-sharing (mudharabah) undertakings. Though these financial institutions do not charge or receive interest, they exist in an economy characterized by market interest rates which quite often fluctuate. This study therefore sought to establish whether such market interest rate fluctuations directly or indirectly affect the profitability of the Islamic banks. The study adopted a longitudinal survey design in which the banks’ financial data and the average central bank rates (CBR) over a five-year period (2009-2013) were analyzed. The study concluded that there is a positive relationship between the market interest rate changes and profitability of Islamic banks in Kenya. - See moreat:.


In the last two decades there has been a remarkable change in the functioning of the banks. Technological changes, Liberalization since 1990 have introduced contemporary and complex financial instruments. Due to this the sales has raised in the financial markets and has resulted in the different types of risks in the banking sector. In the recent years many financial crisis have raised a particular challenge for the central banks in different countries. Basel Committee of Banking Supervision has taken various steps to face these challenges by introducing Basel I and Basel by making the global banking sector more resilient. But the late 2000 financial crisis in US highlighted the loopholes in the Basel II framework in making the banking sector more stable and sound. Therefore the Basel III norms were introduced by the Bank for International Settlements. The Basel guidelines has been drafted by the Bank for International Settlements in agreement with the regulatory authorities of the global banking sector in fifteen developing countries with the main aim of prescribing codes of banking supervision and enhancing financial stability. This research paper analyzes whether Basel III norms are required for the strong and stable resilient banking sector in India. For this purpose some of the important facts have been examined like the significant elements of the Basel III norms, time-line for the implementation of these norms in India, Basel III banking norms in the Indian Banking System with the Implications of these norms on the Indian Banking System. - See more at


Cities in the 21st century will account for nearly 90% of global population growth, 80% of wealth creation, and 60% of total energy consumption. It is a global imperative to develop systems that improve the livability of cities while dramatically reducing resource consumption.” - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Urbanization in India has historically been viewed as a by-product of failed regional planning. It is only now that it is being realized that it is inevitable. However, the policy and practice surrounding urbanization will only change when the benefits of urbanization overtake the costs involved, it is an opportunity for achieving faster growth. Indian cities will grow faster than those of any other country in the coming years. By 2050, India will add over 400 million urban inhabitants, while China will see an increase of 290 million inhabitants over the same period.8 By 2030, seven Indian cities will have a population of over 10 million; in 2011, only Mumbai and Delhi had populations over 10 million. This amounts to a 37% increase in India’s urban population. Cities will generate over 70% of the GDP and 70% of new jobs by 2030, driving a four-fold growth in per capita incomes nationwide. Indian cities are projected to require 700-900 million square meters of new commercial and residential space by 2030, or the size of a new Chicago every year.9 Overall, 2.5 million square meters of roads and 7,400 kilometers of metros and subways must be added to India’s urban expanses. This is 20 times the capacity that has been added over the last decade. - See more at: .


Studies on Virginia Woolf and Sylvia Plath depict their mental instability and ambivalence in their works. Psychoanalytic Feminism is a branch of feminism that works on the deeply ingrained patterns insisted on both men and women, who are unable to come out of the same in the latter parts of their lives. Psychoanalytic Feminism is not a protest, but a step forward towards Intersubjectivity. Intersubjectivity is the tension (balance) between assertion and recognition. When the equilibrium between the two is unstable, the problems of domination crop up. The works of Plath and Woolf seems to be ambiguous in such a way that the characters in the novels often shift from reality to eternity. The concept of Intersubjectivity seems to be almost lost and the characters in turn lose their stability. The Second Sex, at the outset derives the problems with women that occur due to the stereotypical set up, set by the men and women of the early generations. This revolutionary book is not only about the Power of Women, it is also about the limitations of women in a patriarchal set up and the decline of ‘Subjectivity’ (The power of being the Subject). This paper concentrates on the limitations of men and women, their problems with intersubjectivity and the stereotypical images that construct the psyche of them using the characters in the novels written by Plath and Woolf. Key Words— Intersubjectivity, stereotypes, reciprocal relationship, Self, Other, Subject Object, Society - See more at: .


Insights on William Golding enlighten the readers with his setting, the setting that the novels are all the more constructed. The construction (premise), having nature as the backdrop, brings the essence of oikology (landscape ecology). Cosmotheandric principle is not about anthropos (justifying man’s stand) or ecology. Deviating from the usual path of ecocriticism, Cosmotheandric principle locates human beings amongst other organisms and supports the unifying process of making cosmos, organisms and the Spiritual united. This Unifying process is an exalted process (procedure), which Panikkar describes to be the most difficult of all in the Open Horizon. According to Panikkar, Open Horizon (The biggest perspective) is a place where many horizons meet together to form a bigger horizon and the lofty position that the mind is encompassed to create the unifying process. The novels of Golding, have an Oikological set up, where the characters seems to have lost the biggest perspective (Open Horizon) and try to boast the unrighteousness (Anthropos perspective), i.e. justifying the act for survival of the human species. The characters in the novels exploit and deplete the natural environment and in turn exploit themselves in the process of asserting their stand (Anthropos principle). This paper deals with the exalted Open Horizon concept and the unifying Process under Cosmotheandric perspective that the characters seem to have lost in trying to assert their Anthropos principle and the wild attitude of human beings towards nature and vice versa due to the lack of the exalted unifying\\\\ process. Key Words—Cosmotheandric Perspective, Open Horizon, Unifying Process, Oikology, Ecumenic consciousness, historical consciousness, anthropos, macanthropos. - See more at: 

Friday, 1 July 2016


The study entitled, “Empowerment of the Rural Women through Income Generating Activities”, was carried in jalalpur village of Kanpur Dehat district (Uttar Pradesh).The jalalpur village visited by me in February 2015 to May 2015 for collection of the data related to studythe rural women involved in income generating activities. Thus, 50 respondents were selected from jalalpur village of Kanpur Dehat. Maximum respondent [20%] were of the25-30, 46-50, 51-55 year age group while only 10 respondent were of 41-45 year age group.According to their occupation maximum 40% were in farming while only 10% were self-employed and 10% were having no occupation.28% were taken income generating activity for their poor economic condition and traditional practical while only 12% respondent taken income generating to busy assets.Non Monitory Benefit Maximum [30%] were respect from the society while only [8%] rural women were change cropping pattern and intensity. - See more at: .


The aim of this paper is to make a contribution to the discourse on ostensibly unfair practice of social exclusion and examine the exclusionary nature of Indian society expressing its character sometimes in the name of religion, sometimes in the name of culture and sometimes in the garb of nationalism. The equality of opportunity and resources remains elusive despite the affirmative action by the Govt. of India and the vulnerable segments of society remain on the receiving end of injustices in the form of social boycott or exclusion. The exclusion of the poor from participation in social activities and denial of opportunities to them remain another focus of the paper. In addition, this paper makes an attempt to unravel the psychological and sociological causal factors as well as the effects of social exclusion on the psyche of those excluded. This paper is formulated with the agenda that the ideas conveyed through the paper will have a dual impact on policy makers- one, to ensure better understanding of social exclusion and two, to stimulate a discussion that will aid the policy makers to address this vital social issue to promote social inclusion and inclusive growth. We, the People of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic and to secure to all its citizens; Justice, social, economic, political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and opportunity; and to promote among them all; Fraternity, assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation; In our Constituent Assembly this, twenty sixth day of November 1949 do hereby Adopt, Enact and Give to ourselves this Constitution - See moreat: .

THE FUTURE OF ONLINE SHOPPING IN INDIA. A Study of Punjab and Haryana States of India..

Today, the market place is flooded with several e-commerce options for shoppers to choose from. A variety of innovative products and services are being offered spoiling customers for choice. Online shopping is no more a privilege enjoyed by your friends and family living in the US or UK. Today, it is a reality in India. In the last couple of years, the growth of e-commerce industry in India has been phenomenal as more shoppers have started discovering the benefits of using this platform. There is enough scope for online businesses in the future if they understand the Indian shopper’s psyche and cater to their needs. Internet is changing the way consumers shop and buys goods and services, and has rapidly evolved into a global phenomenon. Many companies have started using the Internet with the aim of cutting marketing costs, thereby reducing the price of their products and services in order to stay ahead in highly competitive markets. Companies also use the Internet to convey, communicate and disseminate information, to sell the product, to take feedback and also to conduct satisfaction surveys with customers. Customers use the Internet not only to buy the product online, but also to compare prices, product features and after sale service facilities they will receive if they purchase the product from a particular store. Many experts are optimistic about the prospect of online business. In addition to the tremendous potential of the E-commerce market, the Internet provides a unique opportunity for companies to more efficiently reach existing and potential customers. Although most of the revenue of online transactions comes from business-to-business commerce, the practitioners of business-to-consumer commerce should not lose confidence. It has been more than a decade since business-to-consumer E-commerce first evolved. Scholars and practitioners of electronic commerce constantly strive to gain an improved insight into consumer behaviour in cyberspace. Along with the development of E-retailing, researchers continue to explain E-consumers’ behaviour from different perspectives. Many of their studies have posited new emergent factors or assumptions that are based on the traditional models of consumer behaviour, and then examine their validity in the Internet context. - See moreat: .


This paper deals with the concept of Maintenance of Women after dissolution of marriages under Muslim Law. This subject matter has been one of the most controversial ones, and has undergone many changes over the years. This paper is an attempt to look at the series of changes which this law has undergone by virtue of enactments and case laws, and to look at what the present position of law is. The paper commences with introducing the concept of maintenance in common parlance and then specifically under Muslim law. The paper explains that how initially, there was a conflict between Muslim Law and section 125of CrPC, which is a general law. In this context, the famous Shah Bano case was decided, which became one of the most landmark judgment. In an attempt to resolve the conflict and clarify the position of law, the Supreme Court in this case gave precedence to CrPC over Personal Laws. This, however, was met with a lot of resentment by the Muslim community, and under preassure, the The Muslim Women (Protection Of Rights On Divorce) Act, 1986 was passed in order to nullify the effects of the judgment. However, interpreting this Act in Daniel Latifi v. Union of India, the Supreme Court, along with declaring the Act to be constitutionally valid, interpreted the same, and clarified that the position as settled in Shah Bano Case is the correct one, and that, if the true spirit of the Act is looked into, this position shall emerge. Also, there is no conflict between CrPC and Muslim Personal Law. What these judgments and enactments contained and how the same affected the evolution of this particular law, shall be in dept elaborated in the paper being submiited. - See more at: .


Education is a life-long process. The teacher should continue to learn throughout his life. The International Commission on Education has further strengthened the need of in-service training program by giving a new concept of life-long education. This report states, “Every individual must be in a position to keep learning throughout his life. The idea of life-long education is the key-stone of the learning society.” In service teacher training is also a way of updating teacher’s skills and knowledge for improving teaching and learning which lead to better job performance. It is important for teachers to face new challenges and changes in the education world. It helps in fundamental aspect to improve teacher professionalism. This paper discusses the need for in-service training for teachers at Madrasas in Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh. Research is based on the primary data which is collected through questionnaire and interview. - See more at:.


The present paper addresses the problem as well as solutions associated with the integration of data between dissimilar administrative boundary systems. Presently, the majority of spatial boundaries are designed in an uncoordinated approach with individual boundaries to meet individual needs. When same boundary from different organisation superimposed they do not match. As a result, recent technology for analysing geospatial information such as Geographic Information System (GIS) is not reaching their full prospective. The main aim of this research is to introduce a hierarchical model to aid in the clearness between data layers both horizontally between agencies and vertically between layers in the administrative boundary hierarchy. Administrative boundaries are often used for the display and analysis of spatial information, health, wealth, population etc. The solution proposed within this research involves the reorganisation and readjustment of boundaries into one ordered system. The study area has been taken as a newly formed Bemetara district for the formation of administrative information system. Data mainly used are scanned hardcopy maps, orthorectified satellite imagery with other attribute information. The prototype WEB-GIS has been developed using various software like Arc GIS, PHP, HTML, MYSQL etc has been used. - See more at: .


This research paper aimed at to look the use of internet and its effects on adolescents. Internet plays an important role in our lives. It provide us with a method to connect to important others in our lives.this study was conducted to establish the kinds of activities that adolescents performed on the internet and length of the time they spend on the internet in order to know the effects of internet on adolescents. The study was conducted on 100 adolescents comprising 50 boys and 50 girls of Guru Nanak Academy school of faizabad. The result revealed that boys used more internet as compare to girls. There is both positive and negative effects of internet on girls and boys. Boys had spend more time on internet than girls. Adolescents engage in internet chat rooms and reveal their personal information to people they meet online. The positive impact of Internet includes increase in knowledge, awareness and gain of more confidence. The negative aspects of the Internet include Internet addiction as well as online risks such as exposure to sexually explicit material and online victimization including harassment or cyber bullying and sexual solicitation. - See more at.