Thursday, 30 June 2016


Thermal insulation coatings are a class which begins to attract more focus and priority in recent researches because of their importance and their numerous applications in different civil and industrial fields. In this research, the effect of nano alpha aluminum oxide (?-Al2O3) on the thermal insulation of polymer based paint was investigated. The different weight fractions of nano aluminum oxide ( 2%, 3%,4% and 5% wt. of polymer weight) were added to the formulation which contained nano titanium dioxide and nano calcium carbonate and poly vinyl acetate polymer solution . Dip coating technique was used to coat all samples. The highest increase in insulation value (R-value) was recorded for 4 %wt. sample where its improvement percentage reached to 24.42% compared with the sample which was contained no nano aluminum oxide addition while the other samples showed varied values. The microscopic images showed that 4% sample has well dispersed than others. The Knudsen diffusion effect is the proposed mechanism explaining the insulation improvement. - Seemore at:.


.. Support Vector Machines (SVM)represent one of the most promising Machine Learning (ML) tools that can be applied to the problem of traffic classification in IP networks. In the case of SVMs, there are still open questions that need to be addressed before they can be generally applied to traffic classifiers. Identifying and categorizing network traffic by application type is challenging because of the continued evolution of applications, especially of those with a desire to be undetectable. The diminished effectiveness of port-based identification and the overheads of deep packet inspection approaches motivate us to classify traffic by exploit To tackle this critical problem, we propose a novel traffic classification scheme which has the capability of identifying zero-day traffic as well as accurately classifying the traffic generated bypre-defined application classes. - See more at: 


Energy hole problem is one of the main problem in Wireless Sensor network. Sensor nodes near the sink acts as a relays because they are forwarding their data as well as sensors are far away from sink. Hence Energy depletion is faster in convey nodes. Suppose all the relay nodes die, far sensors can’t communicate to the sink node even though they have Energy and data. This is due to Energy holes. To overcome this problem Mobile sink is used. Finding the path of mobile sink is a hard task. In this paper Mobile sink-based Adaptive Clustering Protocol [MSIEEP] is enhanced to improve the network lifetime. Sink will be reenergized for every 10 rounds. - See more at: 


The solution proposed in this paper aims to improve the quality of lifestyle of physically challenged people who are struggling hard to carry out even their daily work. As these disabilities cannot be treated, even if it is done, it is way more costly than a normal human being can actually afford. Our solution cannot treat it medically but can be carried out very well in a different way. This possible solution is done with the involvement of “Orthosis and Prosthesis”. This paper aims to design an easily affordable prosthetics / orthotics that can become a solution to these problems and this can be made by using complex robotic systems. The presence of robotic system in today’s world may lead to complex technical robotic system problems. In the current scenario we need a reliable, efficient and an affordable product which these disable people can use in their daily lives. We are making this possible by taking in suggestions from some of the renowned orthopedics and doctors. - See more at

Wednesday, 29 June 2016


. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extracts of Petiveriaalliacea (Garlic guinea weed) and Viscum album (Mistltoe) from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) were investigated. Both samples showed good levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.116mg/ml and 0.120mg/ml for V. album and P. alliacea respectively. The extract of V. album inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiellasp., Salmonella sp.,Shigellasp.,Proteus sp., and Staphylococcussp. with zones of inhibitions ranging from 3 to 25mm at extracts concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500mg/ml. The zones of inhibitions for P. alliacea ranged from 3 to 24mm for the same extract concentrations. V. albumhave the highest inhibition against E. coli and least inhibition against Staphylococcus sp., while P. alliacea have the highest inhibition against Shigellasp. And the least inhibition against Staphylococcus sp. - See more at:.


The lifestyle and aquiferous system of sponges are the main factors behind their structural characteristics. They are capable of filtering large volumes of water and have a high rate of retention for particles of 0.2 to 50 microns (µm) and therefore a large capacity accumulation of pollutants. At the same time, members of all sponge classes (Demospongea, Sclerospongea, Hyalospongea) can secrete mineral elements called spicules of opaline silica. These siliceous spicules constitute their skeletons involved in several functions, namely in defense, support and the like. Cliona viridis is chosen for the study of mineral composition, and contribution to the evaluation of the quality of the marine environment by measuring the concentration of certain heavy metals in two different zones. Silica SiO2 is 70.99% (± 0.23) of the biomass of the sponge with other minerals such as sodium, chlorine and calcium. The zinc (Zn) is the most accumulated metal then Iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al). A large study with several species collected from different areas will allow us to understand the process of accumulation of silica and heavy metals and have a good image of level of contamination of the marine environment. - See more at: .


Accurate measurement of Creatinine is very essential in order to pre diagnosis the renal functioning of human body. In this paper we introduced the measurement of creatinine by means of studying its equivalent absorption with the interaction of wavelength of light using endpoint method with the help of photometer. - See more at: .


. At present people are using various online platforms for discussion purpose. We can ask questions and get answers to our questions for other people using that platform. Some of these platforms are: Quora, face book pages, Google plus, etc. and these questions are from various fields like politics, science and technology, sports, entertainment, education, etc. The answers that we get on these platforms are mainly in the form of comments that include text data. To get a complete understanding of what is going on the user have to read all the comments and some of this comments can even have same content. It is wastage of time and energy and still the user doesn\'t get the answer that he is looking for. A way to provide better solution to these questions is to analyze the text data and generate a report of it. Report will be the summarized version of the entire conversation. Depending on few parameters report will be generated that can be referred by the user at any time. It will be a free platform developed in android. It will require a working internet connection. At present it will be used as a simple report generation platform but in future depending upon the user base it can extended for survey and research purpose by individuals and many different organization. - See more at:.


A high efficiency multi-layer halftoning based watermarking which adopts noise-balanced error diffusion to achieve high embedding capacity and improve security aspect. The encoder employs an Efficient Direct Binary Search (EDBS) and Look-Up-Table (LUT) method to embed multiple watermarks. The decoder simply utilizes the Least-Mean-Square (LMS) and naive Bayes classi?er to extract the embedded watermarks in multi-layer framework with self-decoding capability. The proposed watermarking preprocesses the watermark to reduce its bit depth. The 8-bit grayscale image (with 256 levels) is converted into a new image representation (with a lower bit depth) using the uniform scalar quantization with ?xed divisor. The distance metric can be considered in determining the quantization. Experimental results suggest that only minimum milliseconds are required for embedding multiple watermarks. - See more at: 

Adsorption of Cadmium (II) from solution onto activated carbon prepared from MadhucalongifoliaFruit Shell -

Activated carbon derived from Madhucalongifolia Fruit shell has been used for theadsorption of Cd(II) from solution. Cadmium is toxic to living systems and therefore it is essential toremoveit from wastewater. Activated carbon was characterized using techniques like FTIR and SEM. Adsorption capacity of Madhucalongifolia fruit shell activated carbon (MLFSAC) for Cd(II) abetment wasinvestigated employing batch equilibration method. The effects of variousparameters like contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, pH and MLFSAC doses have also been studied and reported. The adsorption data were found to fitwell with the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models.The percent removal of Cd (II) was found to beincrease with adsorbent doses from 1 to 8 gm.Andmaximum efficacy was found at 8 gm. At optimum condition nearly 92% abatement of Cd(II) has been noted using MLFSAC. Thus the self-prepared activatedcarbon underinvestigation has been proved to be an excellent economical adsorbent materialfor Cd(II) removal from contaminated water/wastewater. - See more at:.


. Over the past century, automotive mass production has increased the demand for forged components .Front axle is the major component in an automotive chassis. The work holding was the first issue of the machining operation to be confronted. In machining work holding devices, minimized work piece deformation due to proper clamping and cutting force which was essential to maintain the machining accuracy. This paper gives detailed description on designing a work holding device so that milling operation was performed properly to obtain required dimension for a front axle beam used in automotive application. It also includes the detailed result of analysis done for the assembled devices and also to known the behaviour of the work holding devices against the operating load. The proposed work holding device is designed, to increase the accuracy of machining process so that it can be machining easily with lesser time and in turns its saves the machining time, manufacturing cost and increases the productivity. - See more at: .

Tuesday, 28 June 2016


Location based routing is an upcoming research domain due to their ability to improve energy efficiency of a wireless sensor network; energy efficiency is an important factor deciding the performance of a WSN. Location aware routing protocols utilize location information to discover and maintain a route, thus selecting the best route to minimize the energy consumption. The research paper presents an analysis of mainly used location aware routing protocols Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), Geographic and Energy Aware Routing (GEAR) and Geographic Adaptive Fidelity (GAF). - See more at.


The highest traffic accidents are occurs at night time. At night time people travels with conventional headlamps are particularly unsafe. About 25% of driving done at night time out of which 55% of accidents are occur during this periode.The conventional headlamp system does not provide illumination of light in right direction and at the precise angle, because of this it is a need to understand the alternative technology solution. The paper, presents an Adaptive Front Light System (AFS) for better illumination of light at night time during curved road. It is an additional feature in today’s vehicle which improves safety of vehicles driver as well as passenger which are travels at night time. When vehicle is driven on the curved road then, In AFS headlamps do the horizontal movement by using image processing. According to the distance between subject vehicle and incoming vehicle, AFS headlamps does the vertical movement.AFS improve the accuracy and reliability of the headlamp which result in human safety. To overcome disadvantage of traditional headlight system possible improvement proposal and algorithm are provided. - See more at: .


This paper proposes the latest attacks which are been done in the internet. It explains how these various attacks can be stopped by using various techniques of captcha. There are various types of captcha available nowadays. This paper explains how we can improve the internet security by using the advance captcha. There are two types of captcha which we have seen they are: Numerical captcha and image captcha. In this paper we explain about the advance version of captcha like the motion graphical captcha, pictorial captcha. These captcha can be used for various purposes. It can be used for email verification, bank details verification and even for other payment options. These captcha increases the security from getting the websites hacked. - Seemore at: .


. Background:- Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a form of diabetes caused by autoimmune damage of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas which leads to hyperglycemia. It often occurs in childhood. Methods:- Thirty Egyptian children suffering from T1DM participated in this study. Their age ranged from 11 to 15 years. Glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose (fasting and postprandial), insulin intake and Physical Fitness Index were measured before and after Wii aerobic training. The Wii aerobic training was conducted for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Results:- Comparing the pre and post treatment mean values of the measured variables revealed significant improvement in the blood glucose levels and Physical Fitness Index after the Wii training. Conclusion:- It may be concluded that the Wii game training was effective in the treatment of T1DM. - See more at: 

RSA Cryptography Algorithm Using linear Congruence Class..

Due to the enormous demand for networking services, the performance and security of information has to be improved. To provide information security, numerous cryptographic algorithms were proposed by various researchers, out of which RSA algorithm is one the most popular algorithm. RSA algorithm uses linear congruence method which restricted the operation to specific class of values. RSA algorithm needs exponential time for decryption of message. By extending the RSA algorithm using congruence class and selecting the key in random, the security of algorithm can be increased. Higher the congruence class index, higher will be its level of security. For each of the congruence class element, complexity of algorithm will be same but there will be increase in the level of security. The basic idea behind this implementation is that by converting the given linear congruence into congruence class and solving them algebraically, actual information can be produced. This paper contains the comparison between linear congruence and congruence class using RSA algorithm. Finally we contend that, due to congruence class implementation, the complexity of algorithm will remain same as that of regular RSA algorithm with enhancement in information security by random congruence class key selection. - See moreat: .


Though we are living in India and our surroundings doesn’t need any day-to-day communication in English yet when we cope with some situations where it is necessary to communicate in English, we hesitate and find ourselves unable to express in a natural manner. Suppose you are an undergraduate and looking for a little lucrative career option or option of your choice that is not a simple but has some niche in the market and when you enter that world, you suddenly realize that here at this point of your career you lack in power of communicating in English as at that level a huge competition is among youth according to the ratio of population in India. Then what will you do? You were a Hindi medium student, were good at studies, have your own dreams to get a higher salary than your father or your peer group. But now at this point of time your dream shatters and you find no way to go as you have already dedicated almost 16 years to your studies bringing up your own dream for a particular field and suddenly have a shock that you don’t deserve that place because of your poor communication skill in English. We have majority of our youth who face the same problem but we are still unable to find solution to this major problem. - See more at: .


This paper proposes to utilize this source of information and predict the sentiments of public towards a particular topic. Twitter data is utilized for the same and live tweets of Indian origin are extracted using twitter API called ‘tweepy’ Twitter API was used for streaming of tweets. Entire data can be obtained through access token and secret key. The score for every tweet was evaluated by using one of the score based approach. Moreover, KNN algorithm will be applied on the tweets. - See more at: 

Similarity Identification Technique for Absolute Matching of Images with Feature Specifications. -.

Image Matching is the method for identifying proper symmetric image from the large scale of data sets. Mainly, Principle Component Analysis based approach is used to determine the similarity over the features of corresponding eigen faces. Two steps are utlizing for getting the resultant image as matched data. In the first step, training of the system is carried out and next step is dedicated to test image for matching with references. After determining matched image, features matching is carried out to find out extreme points. Absolute matched image is generated with the support of extreme points. - See more at: .

Motion Planning Based on RRT for Autonomous Road Vehicles: A Review. -

The Rapidly-exploring Random Tree is an algorithm which is used in motion planning for autonomous vehicles which have a defined starting point and a defined ending point. The positive point in this algorithm is that it is probabilistically complete that is even in the constrained areas we get a random tree and may find a path through that area. It is very fast as compared to other algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm. There are different kinds of RRT for different application and optimization purposes. This paper compares the simple RRT algorithm with the more optimized RRT* algorithm for autonomous cars. - See more at.


. Biometrics is a rising technology, which has been broadly used in forensics, protected access and prison security. This biometric system is basically a type of pattern recognition system that identifies a person by defining the authentication through using his distinctive biological characteristics i.e. Thumb impression, retina-scan, iris scan, palm geometry, and face recognition are top physiological biometrics and behavioral traits are Speech recognition, keystroke-scan, and signature-scan. In this paper different types of biometric techniques such as Iris scan, retina scans and face recognition techniques are being discussed. - See more at:.


-. In this paper, equality is established and discussed among soft erosion, soft dilation and soft open in multi scale environment. Soft erosion and soft dilation will exist for various thresholds. So soft open and soft close also exist for various thresholds. If definition for soft erosion and soft dilation are studied (5 ),then some type of equalities are viewed among soft morphological operations. So equality may be established in between soft erosion and soft dilation in multi scale environment (39). open and close are composite operations. So soft open and soft close are also composite operations which will exist at various thresholds. So equality may be viewed among soft erosion, soft dilation and soft open . This discussion may be extended to multi scale environment also. A very important point is that equality does not exist in mathematical morphology but will exist in soft mathematical morphology. - See more at: 


. Climate change and its effect on Indian monsoon in recent years is now having adverse effect on agriculture and less production of grains, vegetables and other life commodities. Various anthropogenic sources are responsible for climatic variations and atmospheric environment pollution. It was recognized in the early 20th century that the known major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused the earth\'s temperature to be higher than it would have been without the greenhouse gases. Foundry industry being more in number at Maharashtra especially Kolhapur City is playing very important role in emitting Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and other pollutant due to use of Coke as a fuel for combustion in foundry industry. Cupola technology in casting industry releases more Carbon Dioxide through the stacks which leads to Global Warming. Hence it is necessary to capture and store the emissions of Carbon Dioxide before its release into atmosphere and reuse whenever necessary. This paper envisages application of Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) by chemical absorption technology which further elaborates how efficiency of carbon capture in foundry can be increased and thereby optimizing the chemical reactions in the process. - See more at: .

Study on FR Mechanism for User Privacy Protection on Social Networking Websites: An Overview. .

As the technology is progressing day by day, so is the numeral of safekeeping issues related to online social networking sites are growing. In this era, online social networks (OSNs) have prolonged a lot of fame around the globe. The OSN users share photos, videos and countless similar media, which at times are a big privacy issues for other users on OSN’s. The privacy fears rise while certainusers update information of other users on social networking websites, which can be immaterial, or somebody wanted it to hide from others or kept it undisclosed. Such sort of information maycomprise of users images, his/her status updates, his/her videos, etc. The main objective of study of this paper is to deal with various kind techniques that can be used to solve the problem of safety related concerns of online social networks. The whole emphasis has been curiouslyplaced on the multiple entity-based images shared by the users, which comprise of privacy related issues. From the time when the decision on photo posting includesgroups in the circle (the most likely scenario) and it is dispersed in nature, our difficulty can be distorted to be a characteristic secure multi- party computation problem. Instinctively, we may ask cryptographic technique to protect privacy related issues, but the computational and communication cost may pose a severe problem for a large Online Social Networks. Apart from cryptographic approach, we may take the consensus-based approach as a promising alternative. The idea to let both user only deal with his/her local data and get the local training result, and then the neighboring users only need to exchange their training results. In the following round, each user still works on his own training data, but take the training results from his/her neighbors as references. We assume that the information will be spread over the OSN and everybody involved will extendthe same conclusion. - See more at: .

Friday, 24 June 2016


. The Amsaga Zone is of a major importance, due to its position in the extreme south west of the Archean part of the Rgueibat shield, particularly to its location close to the Akjoujt Copper mine. Some dating migmatites indicate that granulite metamorphism affecting most Amsaga units took place between 3 and 2.7 Ga. The field observations and microscopic study of samples analyzed of metabasite have helped to understand the relationships between lithological units and mineralization control structures such as faults and shear zones. This context reflects a tectonic control of implementation of the mineralization by movements in faults and in ductile shear zones. The implementation of the copper mineralization could be either syngenetic, related metamorphism or hydrothermal fluid circulation, or it is late in relation hydrothermalism associated with panafrican and hercynian orogenies of Mogrein Guelb deposit, Akjoujt south of Amsaga. - See more at.

Synthesis and Characterization of Ternary Copper(II) Complexescontaining L-Valine. Catechol Oxidase and Phenoxazinone Synthase Biomimetic Catalytic Activity. - .

. A new series of ternary copper(II) complexes having molecular formulae [CuLL?X] and [CuLL?]X has been synthesized. For this ligand system LL?, L is the amino acid L-Valine and L? is 2-aminomethyl pyridine while X¯ is Cl¯, Br¯, NO3¯, ½SO42- or ClO4¯. The structure characterization of these newly synthesized copper(II) complexes was achieved by various physicochemical techniques, viz. elemental analysis, Thermal analysis (TGA and DTG), magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic, and EPR spectral studies. The spectral and magnetic measurements in addition to the electrolytic conductance results indicate that complex2is five -coordinate square pyramidal while the other complex species are found to have four-coordinate square-pyramidal geometry. It has been shown that the stereochemistry of complexes is dependent on the type of counter anions incorporated in the complex molecule. The kinetics and mechanism of substitution by thiourea (TU) were studied in detail as a function of nucleophile concentration in methanol as solvent. The kinetics showed that the substitution reaction of all complexes is a biphasic process. Mimicking copper-oxidase enzymes namely catechol oxidase and phenoxazinone synthase was investigated and the results obtained demonstrated that, the reported copper(II) complexes are suitable as catalysts for the catalytic aerobic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol(3,5-DTBCH2) to 3,5-di-tert-butyl-benzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) (catechol oxidase activity), and o-aminophenol (OAPH) to 2-aminophenoxazine-3-one (APX) (phenoxazinone synthase activity) with dioxygen at ambient condition in good yields. - See more at: 

Wednesday, 22 June 2016

The inter-relationship between wind direction and wind speed for 5 meteorological stations across Assam, India: A case study. - .

Several studies have reported that wind direction and speed prevailing at a place plays a significant role in the sediment re-suspension and bacteria deposition in the water bodies located in its vicinity. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to explore the pattern of wind direction and wind speed; the inter-relationships between them in 5 Meteorological stations across Assam, India, selecting one from each zone, using both linear and circular statistical tools. Also, a season-wise comparison of the stations with respect to the wind speed and direction has been carried out using non-parametric techniques. That the wind in Assam, on average, has been found to emanate from north-east direction during both morning and evening and the association between wind speed and direction for winter season is non-significant for all the places, constitute two important findings of the study. - See more at: 

An Efficient Approach for the Synthesis of Various Substituted 1,5- Benzothiazepines. .

. Single step synthesis of various substituted 1,5-benzothiazepines have been achieved by the reaction of different substituted chalcone with ortho-aminothiophenol in dry diethyl ether at room temperature just by swirling. This method provides mild reaction condition, shorter reaction time as compared to the conventional methods. The structural assignment of the final product has been done by spectral techniques. - See more at: .


. This study aims to examine the execution of hydrogen fuel Internal combustion engine, by separating into three subsystem (photovoltaic modules/wind turbine as the principle power source to electrolyser, internal combustion engine).Then a mathematical model of PV array is reproduced in MATLAB to get operational curves. The sizing of the PV modules and wind turbine to give required amount of energy of 39.41Kwh to produce 1kg of hydrogen, ifectrolyser is 100% efficient. At that point, assessing enough power of the PV modules for the nine months (January to may and September to December) and wind turbines for three months (June to August) when wind pace is moderately high and sun powered insolation is less in these three months at vellore area in Tamil Nadu. Then finally examine the performance of hydrogen fuel I.C. engine utilizing liquefied hydrogen fuel for entire year - See more at: .

Positively charged Hydrogen atom(H+) different from Proton (p+): Proposed model for constituent particles in positively charged Hydrogen atom(H+). - .

Normally it is believed that when a hydrogen atom looses one electron, it can be termed as proton. Here it is suggested that though after the loss of electron from hydrogen atom a positively charge nucleus is left behind but that positive charge is due to positron. On the basis of literature available, a model is proposed showing constituent particles of positively charged H atom. This model states that a hydrogen nuclei consists of neutron, positron and neutrino. A neutron consists of a proton, electron and anti-neutrino. Therefore a positively charged Hydrogen atom(H+) is different from Proton (p+). - See more at: 

Study of some requirements of the environmental management system at the test-work facilities of the Egyptian black sands at Abu Khashaba and Rasheed. .

The second requirement was to evaluate the emission of radioactivity from the studied facilities to the surrounding environment. It was very difficult to relate any change in the external effective dose rate received by the public around the facilities to the radiation activities inside these facilities. On another hand, the excess radon gas concentration at the downstream of Abu Khashaba and Rasheed facilities was found to be 1 and 3.57 (Bq/m3), respectively. These excess concentrations resulted in an increase in the annual effective doses of 0.025 and 0.092 (mSv/y) at Abu Khashaba and Rasheed facilities, respectively. The additional effective doses received by the members of public around the studied facilities are much below the recommended dose limit of 1 (mSv/y). Two requirements of the environmental management system at Abu Khashaba and Rasheed facilities were evaluated. The first requirement was the quantities of sands processed at both facilities. A total mass of 3509 (tons) was processed at Abu Khashaba facility representing a total radioactivity of 2.57x109 (Bq) while a total mass of 1973 (tons) was processed at Rashedd facility representing a total radioactivity of 5.97x109 (Bq). The majority of radioactivity at Abu Khashaba facility comes from raw sands while the majority of radioactivity at Rasheed facility comes from monazite mineral. This strongly suggests the establishment of an efficient marketing plan to displace monazite from Rasheed facility. The study recognized an efficient plan to displace the waste sands from Abu Khashaba and Rasheed facilities. It is concluded that the radiation activities at the studied facilities are consistent with requirements of environmental safety. - See more at: .

Two-compartment detector for radon and thoron gases in El-Missikat and El-Erediya uranium exploratory tunnels, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. - .

Two-compartment detector containing CR-39 SSNTD was employed to measure the concentrations of the two isotopes of radon gas; radon (222Rn) emanating from the 238U series and thoron (220Rn) which emanates from the 232Th series. This detector was tested inside the uranium exploratory tunnels at El Missikat and El Erediya, central eastern Desert, Egypt. Several detectors were distributed to cover the locations at different concentrations of 238U and 232Th in the granitic rocks and different conditions of ventilation in the two tunnels. The activity concentration of 238U inside El Missikat tunnel ranged between 305 and 684 (Bq/kg) with an average of 506.8±135.2 (Bq/kg) while it varied in El Erediya tunnel from 293 to 549 (Bq/kg) with an average of 374.6±79.44 (Bq/kg). In El Missikat tunnel 232Th obtained an activity concentration in the studied granites ranging between 206 and 366 (Bq/kg) with an average of 247±49.75 (Bq/kg) and in El Erediya tunnel it varied from 159 to 265 (Bq/kg) with an average of 193.5±34.06 (Bq/kg). In El Missikat tunnel, the average activity concentration of radon gas was 13.9±5.5 (kBq/m3) at the studied non-venilated locations and 1.69±1.07 (kBq/m3) at the ventilated locations while in El Erediya tunnel the average radon concentration was 5.77±2.59 (kBq/m3) at the non-ventilated area and 1.19±0.4 (kBq/m3) at the ventilated area. Thoron gas concentration got an average value of 3.83±2.3 (kBq/m3) at the non-ventilated locations inside El Missikat tunnel and 247±49.75 (kBq/m3) at the ventilated locations while in El Erediya tunnel this gas got an average concentration of 0.61±0.26 (kBq/m3) over the non-ventilated area and 0.3±0.2 (kBq/m3) over the ventilated area. Indeed, the concentrations of radon and thoron gases obtained by the two-compartment detector responded well to the concentrations of 238U and 232Th in the studied granitic rocks and they differentiated precisely between the ventilated and non-ventilated locations. On another hand, the detector showed linear response of accepted correlation between uranium and thorium concentrations and the effective doses due to the inhalation of radon and thoron gases and their decay products inside the studied tunnels. This, along with the easy use, light weight and small dimensions qualify the proposed detector as an individual monitor of radon and thoron gases for the workers in uranium mines. - See more at:.

. GC-MS Analysis of Fixed Oil from Sudanese Maerua pseudopetalosa (Glig and Ben.)De Wolf Roots - .

In view of lack of literature data on the constituents of medicinal plants used in Sudanese ethno medicine , the present study was designed to identify the constituents of the fixed oil from roots of Sudanese Maerua pseudopetalosa.This important plant is used traditionally in Sudanese ethno medicine . GC- MS analysis revealed the presence of the following major constituents: oleic acid(24.49%),9,12-octadecadienoic methyl ester((10.64%),9-octadecenoic acid-1,2,3-propanetriyl ester(9.58%), ?-sitosterol(8.60%), cyclododecyne(6.08%). Beside ?-sitosterol, some sterols were also detected, but as minor constituents. These are : ?-sitosterol acetate(0.15%), cholest-5-en-3-ol-(3?)-propanoate(0.41%),stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol acetate(0.78%) and compesterol(0.40%). - See more at: .

Harmful Chemicals: Impact on Environment.

Role of Chemicals in human life is very important. They are essential and have adverse impacts on the environment,which has a direct relation with all living things. The three essentials for any life Air , Water and Food which constitutes our environment, are being polluted / adulterated. Our environment is having majority of chemical substances due to various humans activities. It is not the case of today but of the past as well. The difference only lies in the ratio of population verses environment, which is increasing day by day. As a result, there is a direct impact on the physical and chemical environment. These chemicals are the waste from industrial and agricultural processes, structural materials, pesticides, insecticides,weedicides etc.It is evident that some chemicals are useful but many are toxic and harm the environment and our health. A human activity has a complex impact on the environment and affects a chain of interconnecting ecosystems. Use of safe and useful chemicals not only minimizes the risks occurring in the environment but also in human beings. - See more at: 

The Physical Reality Of McConnachie compact groups of galaxies -1. - .

In this paper the tree clustering technique (The Astrophysical Euclidean Separation Coefficients) is used to test the reality of compact groups of galaxies in McConnachie et al. (2009) catalog. The method applied on the first 100 groups only. The result will reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it relates to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included. -See more at: .

Hydro-morphology of Cuts in Coastal Rivers debouching Chilika; South Mahanadi Delta, Odisha, India .

Bhargovi, the split deltaic branch of southern Mahanadi River, runs parallel to Bay of Bengal for last 48.5km and debouches in the northern swamps of Lagoon Chilika joining branch Daya. Though not wide, the river discharges 1100 to 1450cumec which is 3-4% of floods of river Mahanadi. Proximity to coast, alluvial flat topography, sinuosity and mild gradient posed a constant threat to lives and property. Early release of floods to lessen havoc to Puri district during early 20th century was considered urgent. Three cuts were officially provided in the Bhargovi system at. Mangala cut (1937), Siaro cut (1942) and Gabakund cut (1984-2007). After Gabakund cut in 2007, Chilika received 70% less flow of Bhargovi. Sedimentation and imbalance in the flow exchange downsized lagoon area. Each cut plugged one river and made them geriatric or defunct. The present paper studies the spatial impact of these cuts. Stochastic modeling with regression analysis is done to establish a relation between the stages of Gabakund cut vs. discharges at delta head by considering travel time. Field observations are taken to predict the impact of the submerged weir and pilot channel after renovation of cuts. - See more at: .

Monday, 20 June 2016

Last Mile Access Solution For the Provisioning Of Affordable Internet In The Rural & Semi Urban Areas. - .

. Today world is a global village because of Internet. Everything is movingtowards automation either it can be a person with a heart monitor implant, sensors to alert a farmer about humidity or water level under the fields, to a driver about the low pressure of tire, e-health and other manmade objects. All this is possible when it can be assigned IP address [1] and ability to transfer data over the network. Such network has been close relationships with machine-to-machine (M-2-M) communication [2] in gas, power and oil utilities. Smart is often being referred products built with M-2-M capabilities. The main challenge to meet above is to extend footprint of broadband (IP network) networks across the world including rural, semi urban and hilly areas of each country by using cost effective solution. In this paper we explain how to transport triple play services [3] over the coaxial cable by using the existing network of CATV [3] TV cable service providers. In my research we take case study of Pakistan cable TV market. - See more at: 

. Irrigation system using a sensors and MATLAB Programming. - .

Automated irrigation system was developed to minimize water use for agricultural field. Deficiency in fresh water raised a big problem in last decade .This paper presents a smart system that uses a soil moisture sensors that provides a useful information about the soil and transmit this information to centralized server that control water supply. Generally we are using a MATLAB Programming to display threshold value and previous data in excel sheet. In this paper we are describing a 3 sensor i.e. temperature sensor, light sensor and soil moisture sensor that transmit soil data to authorized persons pc using XBEE - See more at: 

A Novice Design of CMOS Based VCO for Signal Processing Based Applications. –

CMOS based devices are highly recommended for low static power consumption and noise immunity. CMOS technology is used in various analog circuits like Comparator, Amplifier, Digital to Analog, Analog to Digital converter, Voltage Controlled Oscillator and many others. Here in this paper author have introduced a novice CMOS based VCO circuit using an commercially available 0.13?m CMOS technology .The circuit have been designed using Microcap 11 .It can be used in many application in which one want to control the oscillation frequency of the circuit by applying an external voltage and to achieve this we have proposed a VCO circuit using CMOS to reduce the power consumption an to reduce the phase noise - See moreat: 

An Approach to Network Traffic Based Android Malware Detection. -

. Now a day, demand of smart phone apps is at its peak level. Every day millions of apps are uploaded and many of them are vulnerable which will compromise our important phone data. There are many techniques have evolved which will help the user to detect such malware and stay protected. But none of the existing malware detection technique mainly focused on the malware detection by using the network traffic behavior. In the following proposed work, malware detection phase is completely different. We will find out the Spyware, Trojan kind malware and also the application which carried out this work. We will compare the traces with the reference feature parameters and detect the suspicious behavior. - See more at: .

An Approach to Secure Air-gap system from Intentional Radio Transmission

-. Intentional Radio Transmission from video signal of system is one of such attack. In this attack transmitter code executing on air-gap system will generate Radio Signals at specific frequency, which will be received by nearby radio receiver device. In this paper, we tested this attack scenario and propose a technique to secure from such transmissions. Air-gap approach is widely used for critical information systems. This approach gives us illusion that our data is secure from any potential attacks and data leakage. But, there are few covert channels which can be used to attack these systems. - See moreat: .


In this paper, both the up and down conversions of microwave photonic mixer are discussed and experimentally performed. The critical problem of a mixer i.e. mixing of spurious signals (spurs) is also suppressed by performing various techniques using different optical components. - See more at: .


A series of metal complexes of Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) and Co(III) with 1-aryl-2-thiohydantoin having composition [M(L)3] (M=Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) and Co(III); LH= 1-phenl/o-methylphenyl/o-chlorophenyl/o-bromophenyl-2-thiohydantoin) are prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic moment, spectral (electronic, IR, PMR) data. The magnetic moment and electronic spectral data suggest an octahedral geometry around the central metal ion. The molar conductance of complexes is an indicative of their non-electrolytic nature. IR and PMR data indicate that the ligands act as bidentate chelating agents, coordinating through thiolsulphur and azomethine nitrogen. The antifungal activity screening against Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium oxysporum and Curvularia pallescence show that the complexes are more potent in comparison with free ligands - See more at: .


Sentiment Analysis aims to determine the attitude of a speaker or a writer with respect to some topic or the overall contextual polarity of a document. Tweets are frequently used to express a tweeter\'s emotion on a particular subject. There are firms which poll twitter for analyzing sentiment on a particular topic. The challenge is to gather all such relevant data, detect and summarize the overall sentiment on a topic. The social media data includes the collection of unstructured raw data from various social media posts & blogs such a Twitter and needs to refine the data to get the results which are most important for understanding the sentiment of a product or service is either positive, negative or neutral. The steps for extracting sentiment data from Twitter and analyzing the performance of a recent iron man3 movie release. we can mine twitter, Facebook and other social media conversations for sentiment data about a company products or movies etc is used to make targeted, real-time, decisions that increase market share. In our project we proposed an architecture, where the raw data taken from twitter is classified and added to HDFS using Naïve Bayesian classifier. Further we process HIVE queries on the sentimental data to catalogue positive, negative and neutral tweets. Subsequently the analysis is illustrated using BI tools. The main advantage of our project is we can visualize divergent tweets on the given attributes and data set according to one’s choice in a map view. -See more at: 


This study includes extraction of volatile oil from thyme plant. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to isolate some active organic compounds from this oil. Ethyl acetate: Toluene 5: 95% was used as mobile phase, TLC chromate- gram appears more than five zones, and four of these zones were identified and characterized by different spectroscopic methods UV –VIS.,I.R, HNMR Spectra besides other analytical methods called gas chromatography (G.C). Results obtained indicate clearly that the following compounds, Carvacrol,p-Cymene, Camphor and thymol are present in the following percent 30%, 3%, 0.9%, 6.5% respectively are present in thyme oil besides other unknown compounds. - See more at: .


Identifying scopes and requirements is a very challenging process that face systems analysts and architects. Engineering information systems is a very complex process that requires a clear understanding of the scopes and requirements of the system. Distributed information systems are of high complexity, Successful systems design call for design modularity. A top-down approach is one of the successful approaches that can be utilized in decomposing a problem statement. In this research we introduce a design methodology that utilizes existing software engineering tools and methods to achieve goals of design required within distributed systems solutions. We address the challenges by decomposing design problems using a four phase approach: Requirements Engineering, Data Flow Abstraction, Module Boundary Definition, and System Lifecycle Design. The methodology, implicitly, promotes and achieves reusability, interoperability, security, and transparency. Facilitation and formalization of the process of abstracting systems design modules is achieved by abstracting requirements using software engineering tools and specifications. Phases of design are utilizing specific tools that facilitates the goals of design - See more at: 


This research is carried out to study the effect of filler content and the particle size on the mechanical properties of neem bark flour-filled high density polyethylene composites. The fiber was characterized. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation of the composite. A second order polynomial model was developed to predict the mechanical properties based on central composite design. The results show that the neem bark used for this study contains 9.04% lignin, 65.43% cellulose, 23.55% hemicellulose. It was found that the composite design was best fit for a quadratic regression model. The selected optimum condition for this composite is 21.63 mesh particle size and 40wt% filler content at 77.7% desirability. The mechanical properties at optimum are 14.51MPa, 5.28%, 0.45GPa, 92.31KJ/m2, and 242.14Pa for tensile strength, percentage elongation, tensile modulus, impact strength and hardness respectively. The optimum conditions were validated with little error less than 0.2%. - See more at:.


The phenomenological forms for isothermal equations of state (EOS) of solids have played a very important role in the field of high-pressure physics. An isothermal EOS is used to study the relationship between pressure P and volume compression at a given temperature. It is also used to study the isothermal bulk modulus BT and its pressure derivatives B`T and B``T, respectively. In the present study we have taken five different forms of EOS which contain B 0 and B`0 only. Using these forms we have studied the pressure-volume relationships for MgO at room temperature and at different range of temperatures. The results for pressure P, isothermal bulk modulus BT and pressure derivative B`T obtained from different equations are compared. The comparison reveals that the all EOS yield very similar results. - See more at: .


In Still images acquired on board the observation satellites of the Earth is more and more characterized by a high spectral resolution with the acquisition of information in the whole spectrum, where traditional remote sensing systems provide some portions of the spectrum.This mode of acquisition brings an assertive quality of data, but do not remain without consequences on systems and conventional equipment transmission and storage, with a cost translates into extra transmission delay and an overflow backup spaces. The primary objective of this work is to answer this double deficit by developing the new satellite image compression techniques. Namely the development of algorithms based on wavelet decomposition image and optimizing said treatment for a better performance in the compression ratio while maintaining image quality developed using both algorithms EZW and SPIHT compared with DCT algorithm. - See more at: 

Fault Detection in CSTR using MATLAB.

The paper discusses the diagnosis of different faults taking place in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The reaction taking place is the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The objective of the paper is to detect the faults occurring in the CSTR and to determine their magnitude and time of occurrence. The fault finding strategy is two pronged- analyzing the faults based on their deviation from the normal behaviour and estimating their time of occurrence from the plots. The next step undertaken is the evaluation of the fault deviation in percentage and subsequently certain conclusions are drawn from these. - See more at: .

Experimental investigation of multi cylinder S.I. Engine emissions by using oxygen enriched air - .

This research paper gives an explanation of the formation process of toxic exhaust gas components during combustion process of oxygen-enriched mixtures in SI engine. Emissions from the exhaust of internal combustion engine affects the environment globally and also it has negative impact on human health.. Various strategies have been being developed to regulate the pollution in the urban development. Increase the concentration of oxygen in the intake air is also one of the methods to reduce emissions of CO and HC. In order to reduce the emissions the oxygen was supplied at different flow rates 3lpm, 6lpm and 9lpm.Investigation work shows that carbon monoxide(CO) emissions decreases at increased amount of oxygen concentration in the intake air but at the same time carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increases due to proper combustion in the combustion chamber. - See more at: .


. t is known fact that the CI engine combustion process is extremely complex. By modeling the In-cylinder processes by suitable combination of assumptions and equations we can analyze the critical features. The CFD models gives us complete understanding of the process under study from formulating the model, controlling the key variables giving rise to cost reduced and time consuming experimental methods. The CFD code used in the present work is FLUENT. FLUENT is very much useful in modeling In-cylinder flows and gives better analysis of pollutants. All the codes run with their own assumptions and restrictions. In this code, it is found that the scalar dissipation rate fluctuations (SDRF) has been ignored which may cause inconsistency in the results. Hence this work is proposed to account SDRF and possible inclusion in the existing code. Three piston bowl configurations spherical, Mexican hat bowl (MHB) and Mexican hat bowl with lip (MHB with Lip) is considered in the present work. The results were presented in the form of graphs with and without considering the effect of SDRF. The validation of the results is done by comparing with the available experimental data. - See more at:.


. Effect of the magnetic field on the physiological aspects of some insects was studied for larvae of three insects reared in laboratory under 25 ±2°C and 70 ±5% RH in suitable rearing boxes. An experimental set-up was designed to measure the magnetic flux density in the rearing box. The magnetic field was calibrated to obtain the point of the maximum gradient. Magnetic flux density was measured using a Tesla meter and recorded average values of 21.8, 249 and 863 Gauss (G) for the 3 insects respectively. The three insects were: cotton leaf warm, S. littoralis, red palm weevil, R. ferrugineus and the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Rearing insects started with a suitable larval instar. Numbers of larvae (form each insect) divided into 2 similar and equal groups, the first reared as a control (without magnetic field), while the second group was exposed to the magnetic field, (MF) along rearing periods. An appropriate numbers of larvae from the control and the treated ones were taken for Bio-chemical analysis and the main parameters were recorded. The measured physiological parameters were: total protein, total carbohydrates, total lipids, invertase enzyme and alkaline phosphatase. Results showed that each of body weight and growth rate as well as the physiological aspects was affected with the magnetic field. Rate of growth was negatively affected as it decreased in cotton leaf worm and red palm weevil. Results also demonstrated that invertase enzyme decreased in the treated larvae of S. littoralis ans G. mellonella with 40.15% and 28.33% respectively lower than the control. In the same time, magnetic field led to increase the invertase enzyme in R. ferrugineus with 71.6% higher than the control samples. In spite of the strong magnetic flux around the larvae of G. mellonella their influence was limited. This may be due to the special behaviour of the worms as they of internal presence and entrance inside the rearing media for these larvae. - See more at: .


The effect of the substitution by europium ions on the magnetic and electrical properties was studied for the ferrite samples Mn0.5 Ni0.1Zn0.4EuxFe2-xO4, (0 ? x ? 0.15). The samples were prepared using conventional ceramic method. Cubic spinel structure of the prepared samples was examined using XRD. The porosity, crystallite size and the lattice parameter of the prepared were also calculated. The obtained results show an improvement in the porosity of the prepared samples due to Eu3+ substitution. The temperature dependence of the initial magnetic permeability was also studied. The experimental results indicate that the substitution by Eu3+ improves the magnetic properties by increasing the Curie temperature of the substituted samples. Temperature and composition dependence of the dc resistivity were also studied. The obtained results show the sample of x= 0.025 has high physical properties such as high resistivity, high magnetic permeability, highest Curie temperature and low porosity so it is useful in the technological applications. - See more at: .


The synthesis of four metal complexes of hydrochlorothiazide Schiff base is reported. The compounds were obtained by the condensation of hydrochlorothiazide and salicylaldehyde, followed by the synthesis of their Cd(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) metal complexes. Structural characterization was done using 1H and 13C NMR, MASS, IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Prepared compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Obtained results were compared with those of parent drug hydrochlorothiazide. The increased antimicrobial potency of all compounds were recorded; excellent activity was reported for Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes. - See more at: .


- . Money, which is responsible for solving health problems, can be turned out as a cause of creating health problems. Paper currency, an exchangeable fomite, is constantly subjected to contamination. The objective of this study was to identify the bacteria present on the currency notes circulating in India. A total of 50 currency notes of different denominations (Rs. 5, Rs. 10, Rs. 20, Rs. 50, Rs. 100, and Rs. 500) were randomly collected from 15 different sites like ATM, auto driver, bank, beggars, bus conductor, butchers, college canteen, food seller, general store, medical store, milk dairy, petrol pump, rickshaw puller, vegetable/fruit sellers and wine shop. Persons handling the notes were asked to deposit them in sterile polythene bags. The notes were taken to the laboratory immediately and bacteria were identified using standardized microbiological techniques. 96% of the notes (except ATM notes) collected during this study were contaminated with bacteria like; Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Clostridium sp., Escherichia coli, Actinomycetes sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. The study suggested that Indian paper currency notes are highly contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and this may play a significant role in transmission of infectious diseases. Hence, great care must be taken while handling money during the preparation and handling of food to avoid cross contamination. - Seemore at: 


Introduction:- During school years children become increasingly capable of and responsible for self-care activities. The ability of mind to store the past experiences of learning and utilizing them is known as memory. The development of memory in children becomes evident within first 2-3 years of a child’s life as show considerable advances in declarative memory. This enhancement continues into adolescence with major developments in short term memory, long term memory. Soya bean is hailed as the most protective bean. Soya beans contain 40% protein as compared to other legumes which contain 20% protein. It has the highest protein content amongst plant products. Objective: - The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of soya bean supplementation on memory of schoolchildren available in selected schools of Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Methodology:- A True –Experimental study was conducted in Z.P.H.School, located in T.P.Gudur, at Nellore District. Sample sizes of 60 school age children were selected by using stratified random sampling technique. Modified PGI Memory scale was used to assess the memory of a child. Results:- The results reveal that with regard to memory status of the school children, in experimental group, during pre test, 19 (63.3%) children had very good memory and 11 (36.7%) had good memory whereas in post test, 29 (96.7%) children had very good memory and 1(3.3%) had good memory. In control group during pre test, 18(60%) children had very good memory and 12(40%) had good memory whereas in post test, 19(63.3%) children had very good memory and 11(36.7%) had good memory. Conclusion:- The study concluded that there is a significant association between soya bean supplementation and, memory. There is a significant in improvement of Memory in experimental group as compared to the control group. This shows that administration of soya beans in improvement of Memory is very effective and cost effective in the enhancement of academic performance. - See more at: .

Sunday, 19 June 2016


Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been used for many surgical procedures by the anaesthetist in general surgical procedures. It is seldom applied for oral surgical procedures. In this study we have used LMA for common minor oral surgical procedures. A total of 30 patients who required short oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure of all age group were included. Pre anaesthetic evaluation and physician fitness, as required was taken. Time taken for insertion was noted. Duration of surgery from the time of laryngeal mask airway insertion till the removal of laryngeal mask airway was recorded for all cases. Post operative dysphagia and dysphonia was evaluated by visual analogue scale and ease of placement also was evaluated with visual analogue scale. For most of the cases time taken for insertion of LMA was between 120 to 150 seconds. Only one case took around 4 minute of time for insertion and 3 cases took more than 1 hour duration for surgery. There was mild dysphagia and dysphonia after 24 hours and no other related complications were noted. Final conclusion of this study was that LMA can be used in minor oral surgical with minimal complications. - See more at: .


Introduction:- Facility based new born care has been identified in treating sick child and providing support to low birth weight babies immediately after birth. This care is crucial in determining the child survival. Developmental milestones act as check points in a child’s development to determine what the average child is able to do at a particular age. Facility based care includes essential care at birth and care of sick babies which helps infants to grow at normal rate and live a healthy life. This study was an attempt to compare normal infants and infants admitted in FBNC units. Methodology:- The present study was undertaken to evaluate the developmental milestones of infants admitted in Facility based new born care also called Special New Born Care Unit at the time of birth, in Sawai Madhopur District. Data for infants born were taken from ASHA and AWW by investigators. The total infants tracked for the study were 2888, 1444- admitted to FBNC and 1444 from normal population were matched for age and gender from the same village. An Interview schedule was formulated to collect general information. Information related to developmental milestones like age of social smiling, neck holding, standing etc were recorded. Results: - The results of the study indicate that there was no significant difference in the 2 groups (FBNC and Normal) with regard to cognitive development. Ninety percent infants in both groups gave social smile at one month, neck holding at 3 months was seen in around 37 % in both groups, standing with support at 9 months was seen in 22 % infants and 4 % infants at 1 year, similarly speaking monosyllables at 9 months was around 20 % and at 1 year it was 4 % in both the groups. Although there was no significant difference between the 2 groups but with regard to cognitive development the indicators were not up to the acceptable standard of development according to age. - See more at: .


Ureteral triplication is a rare congenital anomaly of urinary tract with wide spectrum of presentation. The association of ureteral triplication with stricture of one of the branch is very rare and has hardly been reported in literature. We present a case of 20 year old boy presenting with recurrent urinary tract infection and with occasional haematuria. Ultrasonography revealed hydroureter with likely double moiety and ectopic insertion of ureter into the prostatic urethra. On CT urography, triple moiety of the right kidney was revealed with stricture of middle ureter at site of union of ureters and resultant proximal hydroureter. Renal tissue was dysplastic in mid pole. Ectopic insertion of single ureter into the prostatic urethra was also seen. Radiological features along with embryology and review of literature is discussed. - See more at: .


Paramolars and distomolars are supernumerary molars, and a developmental anomaly. This is a case report of simultaneous presence of distomolars and paramolars in maxillomandibular region. - See more at: .


In vitro grown microshoots of Sarcostemma brevistigma were used as explant for encapsulation. Encapsulated microshoots were kept at 25°C, and the success rate of regrowth was found to be approximately 50% following 1 months of storage. Encapsulated microshoots showed 37.66% formation of multiple shoots on plant growth regulator free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Healthy root formation was observed in all microshoots following two weeks of transfer on half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 µM ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 µM Indole acetic acid. These plants were subsequently transferred to pots containing a mixture of soil, sand and farm yard manure (2:2:1, v/v), and then shifted in the greenhouse. In the green house and the overall survival was found to be 75% after 2 months. The genetic fidelity analysis of S. brevistigma plants developed from encapsulated microshoots was done using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. For molecular analysis 25 decamer primers were used to check genetic fidelity of plants selected from all three batches was carried out using. Only 5 primers produced scorable amplified products and a total of 38 bands were observed; out of these 10.52% bands were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the RAPD profile revealed an average similarity coefficient of 0.95 confirming genetic stability of plants derived from encapsulated microshoots following 1 months of storage at 25°C. - See more at: .

... Autophagy-related Protein LC3 in Egyptian Colorectal Cancer: Impact and Possible Relation to STAT3 andmiRNA 101..

Background: - Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common worldwide cancer and the fourth worldwide cause of cancer death. Autophagy has been highlighted as a promising molecular target in cancer. Its role in carcinogenesis is complex with a reported oncogenic or tumor suppressive role. Detecting LC3 has become a reliable method for monitoring autophagy. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Aim:- To search for the expression of LC3, as a marker of autophagy, STAT3 and miRNA 101 as possible regulators of autophagy and/ or potential molecular prognostic targets in Egyptian CRC patients. Material and methods:- Twenty five CRC and 25 adjacent normal mucosa specimens were obtained. Immunohistochemical assessment of LC3 expression using anti-LC3 and assessment of STAT3 and microRNA 101 expressions by real time - RT - PCR were done. Results: - Revealed a statistically significant increase in LC3 (p<0.001) and STAT3 expression in tumor samples (6.31 ± 1.96 folds) than normal mucosa (p<0.001 each). Both of them were directly correlated together (r= 0.833, p <0.001). MicroRNA 101 was inversely correlated to both LC3 and STAT3 (p<0.001) and was significantly reduced in tumor samples (0.37 ± 0.16 folds) (p<0.001) with a possible correlations to tumor characteristics. Conclusion:- LC3, STAT3 and miRNA 101 may be valuable as biomarkers that may predict cancer colon poor prognosis. The critical role of STAT3 and miRNAs in autophagy would expand our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of autophagy regulation. - See more at: .


The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of 11 different medicinal plants species from Trans-Himalayan region against the phytopathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic extract of Codonopsis clematidea, Hippophae rhamnoides, Artimesia dracunculus, Galium aparine, Mentha longifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Rubia coradifolia, Saussurea lappa, Inula racemosa, Rheum webbianum and Arnebia euchromawere screened for its antifungal activity. The plants were selected on the basis of their reported ethnobotanical uses and locally available. Results revealed that all the concentrations of plant extracts brought about significant inhibition in the growth of these pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. All the three concentrations of the 12 tested plant extracts were found to be significantly inhibitory to fungal growth and the rate of inhibition increased generally by increasing the concentration. Similarly antifungal activity of plant extracts showed significant activity when compared with the leaf/root extract against the two Aspergillus spp. The results indicated that all tested plant extracts had different degrees of antifungal activity against the tested pathogenic fungi. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine if plant extracts could provide antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi. The results obtained from the present investigation clear that the antifungal activity vary with the species of the plants, plant material and the concentration used. - See more at: .


Quality of water is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation. The present study was carried out to determine the seasonal variations of physicochemical parameters in water samples from Antiya Taal, Jhansi city, India during August 2014 to May 2015. Seasonal variation of some physico-chemical parameters such as, temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, chloride contents, alkalinity, total solid, total suspended solid, total dissolved solid , free CO2, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand(COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon and heavy metals were determined for the estimation of pollution load. The observations imply that The water of Antiya Taal was found better in the month of November and February compared to that of the month of May. - See more at: .


In pursuit of selecting cheap raw material for producing lactic acid by fermentation ground nut shells were chosen as substrate. However there is no much relevant information was available on fermentation of ground nut shells. The experimental studies on production of L lactic acid were explored, by solid state fermentation. The experiments on groundnut shells were carried out, as substrate which was one of the cheapest raw materials available in India. The ground nut shells were pretreated with dilute acid (HCl&H2SO4), sodium sulphite, NaOH and methanol solvent extraction methods for producing total sugar. It was observed at temperatures ie., at 350C,370C and 420C, different inoculums size(3ml to 6ml) and different pHs(4.5 to 5.5), the lactic acid production is 12 g/l, `17 g/l and 23.0 g/l respectively. Lactic acid was estimated by AC Kimberley Taylor method. The mutant cells were tested for its stability on 0.6% Allyl alcohol , which was a selection agent. Mutants were generated by exposing to UV radiations, with different exposure times and stability is tested. The results were encouraging and the lactic acid produced was about 23 g/l at temperature of 420C. The pH optimum was found to be about 5.2. and inoculum size was found to be 3 ml. The present studies were focused on accumulation of lactic acid by using ground nut shells having ligno cellulosic material after treatment with dilute acid. - See more at: 


..Field of dentistry has grown in leaps and bounds in the last decade. Now the focus has shifted from operative to preventive dentistry. Research in caries has shifted from traditional surgical approach to early intervention and prevention of caries for early carious lesions. This has been possible due to advent of various remineralising agents. These agents control the demineralisation/remineralisation cycle around the tooth. This article highlights the various newer agents and discusses their application. - See moreat: .


An attempt has been made to study the impact of industrial pollution on the species diversity and distribution of rotifer fauna in river Basantar in the Jammu province of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from December, 2009 to November, 2011. A total of 16 rotifer taxa belonging to 12 Genera and 10 Families were recorded. Among all the ten families, Family Brachionidae was dominant. The temporal variations in rotifer population exhibited winter and spring maxima at all the stations while spatial variations revealed a rise in their density from least polluted to highly polluted sites mainly affected with industrial effluents. The rotifer taxa Brachionus sps., Philodina, Keratella sp., Lecane luna, Lecane (M.) bulla and Filinia longiseta had their highest density at the polluted stations of the river and were identified as pollution indicator taxa. Diversity, richness and evenness was highest at least polluted sites while dominance at highly polluted sites - See more at

Saturday, 18 June 2016


In the present study the rhizosphere soil sample was collected from different cultivation lands in and around Gandhigram Rural Institute- Deemed University, Gandhigram, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India. Then the Azotobacter sp. Was isolated and identified using standard procedures. The Azotobacter sp. Was screened for Indole acetic acid production and standardized for IAA production at different tryptophan concentration i.e 1-5 mg/ml and control (without Tryptophan). The results showed that the Azotobacter sp. Significantly produce higher quantity of IAA (52.80 mg/ml) at 5 mg/ml of tryptophan concentration on fifteenth day compared with others. A low amount (7.48 mg/ml) of IAA production was recorded by Azotobacter sp. In control (without tryptophan addition). The plant growth studies using Azotobacter sp. At different concentration (0-5 ml) using vigna unguiculata (L).walp at different day intervals (5 and 10 days) were done. At tenth day the germination percentage (80%), Root length (12.03±0.63), Shoot length(24.68±0.43), fresh weight of whole plant(3.59±0.06) and dry weight of whole plant(0.49±0.39) were significantly enhanced by the Azotobacter sp. at 5ml concentration on tenth day compared to other concentration and control. - See more at:.


Prakriti takes its origin at the very moment of the fertilization of the Shukra with Shonit where the predominance of particular Dosha determines the Prakriti. Every individual has some specific physical and mental qualities which remains same throughout the life. The examination of the individual is essential while administering medicines. It is of utmost clinical importance to ascertain the degree of patient’s strength by knowing the tone of the system, compactness, body proportion, state of mind, digestive power, tolerance to exercise and age. The determination of all the above factors may reveal the incidence of emergence reactions found with Ketamine anaesthesia. This analysis on the basis of Deh-Prakriti may decide the particular constitution in which these emergence reactions are common. In this way it would be possible to take precautionary measures pre-operatively in particular patients and thus prevent these worrisome psychological reactions. - See more at: 


Antibacterial activities of the three sea grass Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia were tested against ocular pathogens E.Coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcusaureus, Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus saphrophyticus and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis using different solvents hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol namely were investigated. The chloroform and ethylacetate extract showed maximum activity. In the case of phytochemical analysis the ethylacetate, ethanol and chloroform extracts showed positive activity with phytoconstituents such as phenols, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, and tannins but sugars and quinine showed negative activity. Further experiments are underway to isolate active compounds in controlling the growth of pathogens. - See more at: .

Is Oro-antralMyiasis life threatening? : A Case Report. - .

Infestation of living tissues of humans and animals, by diptereous eggs or larvae is very rare entity and is termed as myiasis. In the present case, patient aged 50 years, reported to us with a complaint of a large communication in anterior maxilla and left posterior mandible region. Intra oral examination showed generalized periodontitis and myasis with purulent discharge at the same sites. Despite treatment patient died due to severe septicemia. The case is significant in its presentation as Oroantralmyiasis could be life threatening if neglected at its earlier stage. - See more at: .