Tuesday, 31 May 2016


The ever increasing surface and ground water contaminations with industrial effluent discharges has necessitated the design and development of cost effective dye degradation strategies involving advanced oxidation process that take advantage of light induced degradation of dyes by utilizing semiconductor nano particles. Herein, Lithium Zincate (Li2ZnO2) nano particles with a crystal size of 20-40nm were developed through hydrothermal technique. The synthesized semiconductor was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) method followed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements. The photo catalytic degradation of Indigo carmine (IC) was affected using Li2ZnO2nano powder. The effect of parameters such as the catalyst load, dye concentration and irradiation time on photo catalytic degradation was established. - See more at: 

A facile one pot synthesis of pyrazolyl pyrimidines through multcomponent reaction

A series of new pyrimidine derivatives containing pyrazole moiety were designed and synthesized. In addition, various substituents were introduced in to the entering pyrazole aldehyde ring and ?-keto ester with the purpose of exploring the influence of substituent on anticancer activity by regulating the electronic and steric effects. The synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques - See more at: 

A Framework for Ranking of Colleges Based on Unstructured Data using k-Anonymity Algorithm in Hadoop.

Choosing a right measure in assessing the education system might be a great challenge in present scenario. As the numbers of technical institutions are increasing enormously, students and parents are uncertain to take up higher education in a reputed institution. The information regarding colleges or institutions is graded by many institutional stake holders and others through social networking sites like Twitter. The large volume of data generated through social networking sites is unstructured which is posted by different kinds of people. Processing the unstructured data is a tedious process. To rank the institutions based on the unstructured data would be a difficult process using traditional or conventional data mining techniques and tools. The proposed framework is for ranking the institutions based on K-anonymity algorithm which is implemented in HADOOP and HIVE. This method improves the efficiency and accuracy of the data processing compare to the traditional methods. - See more at: 

Multiple Sequence Alignment in Bioinformatics.

This paper proposes few genetic operators to obtain better alignments of multiple molecular sequences. All the proposed operators in the method have been implemented and validated within a self developed software tool which allows the user to select the various genetic operators for crossover, mutation, fitness calculation, population initialization. It guarantees the next generation of populations with better fitness value. Improvement in the overall population fitness is also calculated and evaluated. Survival of the fittest policy is followed to arrive at a better fitness in following generations. These fitness values then help to find heart and diabetes problems for that chromosome. Observations based on variable parameters have been recorded, analyzed & presented in the form of results. Results were also compared with few standard existing online tools to study the feasibility of the proposed operators. - See more at:

Determining required heat energy and CO2 emissions resulting from fuel consumption in different greenhouse installations in Mediterranean climate conditions -

As a result of the energy crises of the 1970s, greenhouse cultivation has developed rapidly in the countries on the Mediterranean coast. In order to achieve the expected quality production and productivity, greenhouses should be heated when outside temperature falls below 12oC. In Turkey, small scale family businesses implement very simple heating methods to protect plants from frost, rather than provide regular heating of greenhouses. The modern greenhouses that have been installed in recent years are equipped with hot water tube heating systems. In addition to affecting production costs in a significant way, heating greenhouses has negative influence on the environment due to carbon emissions of the selected fuel type. The fuel to be used in heating greenhouses should be both cost effective and environment friendly with the lowest level of carbon emissions. This study aims to determine the amount of heating energy required for different inside temperature values desired in plastic greenhouses with different specifications, under Mediterranean climate conditions, to estimate the amounts of coal, natural gas, diesel fuel and fuel oil to be used in heating and to calculate the annual fuel costs and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for each fuel type. The study has shown that the most convenient fuel to meet the annual heat requirements of greenhouses is natural gas. The relative change in the cost of natural gas, diesel fuel and fuel oil has been calculated as an increase of 13%, 73% and 59% respectively. The annual CO2emission of natural gas has been determined to be 50%, 29% and 30% lower than that of coal, diesel fuel and fuel oil respectively. - See more at: 

Stress Distribution between Gauss Quadrature Method and Alternate Method for Functionally Graded Material.

The present study aims to compare the nodal stresses for Gauss Quadrature method and alternate method. The alternate method represents the corner point and midpoint of a quadrilateral as a sampling points of the element. It is extrapolated using Richardson extrapolation in the finite element analysis. To investigate the influence of material property variation like Young?s modulus, numerical example for the family of quadrilateral element (Q4 and Q8) are solved and compare the results of functionally graded elements with the homogeneous elements. The result of nodal stresses of the alternate method are compared to the conventional Gauss Quadrature method. - See more at: 

The Role of Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Predicting Ascitic Fluid Infection in Ascitic Patients Admitted to Zagazig University Hospital in 2014.

Background: It is difficult to diagnose spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) early in ascitic patients. The aim of the study was to measure serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels to obtain an early diagnostic indication of SBP in ascitic patients. Methods: A total of 62 patients (mean age: 54.4 ? 10.7, 77.4% were males) hospitalized due to cirrhosis (n=57) or non-cirrhosis related (n=5) ascites were included in this study. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP, 19.4%), culture-negative SBP (35.5%), bacterascites (6.5%), sterile ascites (30.6%) and non-cirrhotic ascites (8.1%) groups were compared in terms of procalcitonin levels in predicting ascites infection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of procalcitonin levels. Results: Culture positivity was determined in 25.8% of overall population. Serum procalcitonin levels were determined to be significantly higher in patients with positive bacterial culture in ascitic fluid compared to patients without culture positivity (median (min-max): 3.35 (0.05?6.4) vs. 0.2 (0.05-1.9), p=0.000). Using ROC analysis, a serum procalcitonin level of >1.9 ng/mL (area under curve (AUC): 0.791, sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 92%) were determined to accurately help the diagnosis of bacterial peritonitis. Conclusion: According to our findings, determination of serum procalcitonin levels seems to provide accurate and rapid diagnosis of ascitic fluid infection - See more at: 

A new method for the determination of dissociation constant (kd) on the binding of CA19-9 to its antibody in type 2diabetic patients by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with some modifications.

Background:-In order to quantify the interactions between molecules of biological interest, the determination of dissociation constants (Kd) is essential. Several methods are known for calculating these constants, most of which are based on linearization procedures, such as the Scatchard (1949) plot, Lineweaver and Burk (1934) plot, etc. This linearization does not require direct ligand labelling or the absolute concentration of the complex and is, therefore, especially suitable for Kd determination from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Objectives: - Present a new method for the determination of a dissociation constant (Kd) of the binding of CA19-9 to its antibody in type 2 diabetic patients using Scatchard plot through development of ELISA. Methods:- This study included eighty individuals with mean age (46.5 ? 1.14 years) were divided into two groups. Group ,forty patients with type diabetes mellitus have a mean duration 6.6? 0.94.Group consisted of forty healthy individuals were classified as control group. CA19-9 level were measured in serum by ELISA technique.Select the highest value from the first group and other value within the normal range chosen from the second group in addition to the CA19-9 standard (100U/ml) to determine the dissociation constant (kd) using external CA19-9 monoclonal antibody and calculated by Scatchard plot. Results:- The dissociation constant of the interaction between antibody and antigen from the data of direct, non-competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) by Scatchard plot is (15.6006, 12.5313 and 4.1271 U/ml) for Standard (100 U/ml), Patient (99.568 U/ml) and Control (23.494 U/ml) respectively. Conclusion:-A simple linearization procedure developed to determine the dissociation constant of the interaction between antibody and antigen from the data of direct, non-competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) by Scatchard plot. -See more at: 

Isolation and Identification of Flavonoids from Heartwood of Acacia nilotica var nilotica and their Antibacterial Activity.

- From the methanolic extract of the heartwood of Acacia nilotica var nilotica, two compounds (I and II) were isolated ; compound I : 7, 3`, 4`-trihydroxy-3-methoxyflavone and compound II : 7, 3`, 4`-trihydroxyflavonol. The compounds were purified by different chromatographic techniques and identified via spectroscopic tools: IR, UV, 1HNMR and Mass spectroscopy.The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginos) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Both compounds showed varying antibacterial activity. - See more at: 


A spectrophotometric determination of uranium in microgranite rock sample, Sela area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, from its leach liquor using effective and efficient lixiviants for its selective leaching followed by its direct spectrophotometric determination using arsenazo (III) dye without prior separation, as solvent extraction or ion exchange, was proposed in the present work. Several lixiviants were studied for the selective leaching of uranium namely; citric acid, urea, ammonium acetate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium nitrate. The selected ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium nitrate lixiviants gave high leaching efficiency of uranium beside the minimal dissolution concentrations of the concomitants hence lowering the matrix interfering effect of those elements during its determination. Several factors were studied for this purpose namely; the choice of proper lixiviant(s), solid to liquid ratio (S/L), leaching time, temperature, interfering matrix effect where their spectral interference on uranium was also studied. It was found that maximum leaching of uranium with the least concomitants was reached using 1M ammonium bicarbonate and 1M ammonium nitrate with percentage leaching efficiencies of 99.5% for both lixiviants. The optimized method was applied on three microgranite and two international certified samples BL-4a and DL-1a, where statistical evaluation showed that their average relative standard deviation was 0.61. - See more at: 

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Gaseous Control in Claus Process.

The efficiency of the Claus process plant is determined by material balance. A new commercial available catalyst is recommended with contact time 3 seconds. A pilot plant has been designed to optimize temperature and air to gas ratio for maximizing of sulphur recovery in process thus reducing H2S pollution.see more

Compressive Strength of Ceramic Waste Based Geopolymeric Binder. -

In this paper, the compressive strength of geopolymeric binder prepared using the source materials such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and ceramic waste powder without using any conventional cement has been investigated. The compressive strength was determined as per relevant Indian Standard. The different parameters considered in this study are the proportion of binder components such as ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH solutions and alkaline liquid to binder ratio. The various combinations of fly ash, GGBS and ceramic waste powder considered are 80%, 10% &10%; 60%, 20% & 20% and 40%, 30% & 30% respectively. The ratio of binder to sand and Na2SiO3/NaOH solutions is taken as 1:2 & 1:3 and 2 & 2.5. The alkaline liquid to binder ratio is 0.45. The compressive strength of mortar cubes are determined at 7 and 28 days. It can be concluded that, as the percentage of the Ceramic waste powder increases, the compressive strength of the geopolymeric binder decreases when compared to conventional binder. - See more at:


We, human beings finding the solutions on energy crisis. It may be in terms of Alternate Energy sources, Increase in Efficiency or Saving of Fuel. For proper combustion carbon from fuel of good calorific value and sufficient amount of oxygen from atmospheric air is required. But as we know we get only 21% Oxygen and about 79% of other gases which produces pollutants like Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen oxide, Hydrocarbons, Nitric oxide, Sulphur dioxide etc. Oxygenized air helps in proper combustion with reduction in the volume of flue gases and greenhouse effect. Oxygen enrichment results in rapid combustion of fuel which increases power output, mechanical efficiency and volumetric efficiency with increased amount of heat generation. - See more at: 


In this research work, the virtual experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of friction stir welding process (FSW) parameters on output variables such as peak temperature and flow stress of friction stir welding of aluminium alloy AA7075. The process parameters considered in this investigation were rotational speed, traverse speed and shoulder diameter. Friction stir welding simulations were performed using Hyper works (Hyper weld). The results indicate that the FSW process parameters influence the temperature distribution and flow stress during the process. It is found that peak temperature increases and flow stress decreases with increase of rotational speed with varying traverse speed and also found that the peak temperature decreases and flow stress increases with increase of traverse speed with varying rotational speeds. The temperature and flow stress distribution increase with increase of tool shoulder diameter. - See more at: 

Design And Implementation of Advanced Wireless Tongue Drive/Operated System for Paralyzed,Disabled & Quadriplegic Patients.

We have got evolved a Wi-Fi, noncontact, unobtrusive, tongue-operated assistive technology called the Tongue controlled device. The TCS affords humans with paralysis, Quadriplegic diseases, minimum or no motion capability of their higher limbs, lower limbs with an efficacious tool for computer access and environmental control. A small permanent magnet secured at the tongue by using implantation, piercing, or tissue adhesives is used as a tracer, the motion of that is detected by way of an array of magnetic sensors established on a headset outside the mouth or on an orthodontic brace interior sent wirelessly to microcontroller by using wireless transceiver. The microcontroller?s outputs signals are wirelessly transmitted to an ultraportable personal digital assistant compact computer carried at the user?s clothing or wheelchair and are processed to extract the person?s instructions. The consumer can then use those commands to get right of entry to a personal digital assistant computer, manage a power wheelchair, prosthetics and home appliances or have interaction with his or her surroundings. Most adult humans have 32 teeth, and several commands can be linked to a combination of teeth or tongue gestures, making the possibilities countless. - See more at: 

Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles using Colchicum autumnaleand its characterization. -

Recent interest in the development of new and novel strategies for the generation of gold nanoparticles stems from their potential applications in diversified fields.Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is now established as an emerging area of nanoscience research. A bottom-up ?green? and rapid synthetic route using Colchicum autumnale leaf broth as reducing and stabilizing agent produced gold nanoparticles at ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV?vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, X-ray diffraction and DLS. FTIR spectra indicates that the reduction of Au3+ to Au0 was mediated by alkaloids present in the plant leaf broth. The size of synthesized nanoparticles are in the range of 70-120nm, which has been confirmed by DLS and FE-SEM.The size of nanoparticles decreases with increase in broth concentration. The morphology was irregular spherical to polygonal and crystallized in face centered cubic symmetry. - See more at: 

Analysis and Evaluation of Computer Apps for Special Education.

 Each child has individual academic strengths and personality; however learning disabilities will impact differently on individual children. This learning disability results in underachievement in examination and in particular, in mathematical subjects. Students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students. Difficulties with early numeracy can interfere with the acquisition of mathematics skills in later childhood. The success of any learning improvement depends upon many factors. The adoption of interactive materials and technology and preparing teachers with essential knowledge and skills for the education is one of the best methods of teaching learning disabled students. In this paper a review work was carried out to study the work carried out in the learning disabled students and the apps related to mathematics.see more


In this study, a detailed review on the reported correlations of shear strength and physical properties of soft soil has been investigated. An ultra-soft soil has been prepared from 2% to 10% bentonite clay soil with high water content. The shear strength of the prepared ultra-soft soil has been tested using modified vane shear device. Based on collected data and experimental results, two new mathematical models for shear strength-water content relationship has been proposed for shear strength and water content ranged from 6 kPa to 0.1 kPa and 50% to 1100% respectively. The second proposed model was compared with several reported models from literature to demonstrate shear strength-water content relationship for ultra-soft soil with low shear strength and high water content. The second proposed model has shown a very good agreement with the experimental results with coefficient of determination (R2) up to 0.91. - See more at: 

Monday, 30 May 2016

Commercial Feasibility Study of PET Bottles Recycling by Solvent Extraction Method. -

With increasing amounts of consumption of PET bottles in Bangladesh, huge amount of solid waste has been accumulated and thus polluting environment as these are non biodegradable. The aim of this research is to obtain information on post-consumer PET bottles recycling, its technological and economic aspects. These goals were attained through literature review of some current available recycling process and carrying out laboratory experiments of a recycling process (Dissolution of PET flakes by solvent recovery method using Cyclohexanone as solvent) being developed in Pilot Plant and Process Development Center of Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. FTIR was used to determine the functional group of the product, based on the peak value. The chemical structure of the standard PET and waste PET, before and after the restoration process was confirmed by recording their IR spectra. Experimental results have showed 90% PET recovery and 50% solvent recovery. -See more at: 

Investigation of Optimum Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) for CdS:O/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells (TFSCs) from Numerical Analysis. -

 Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) are an increasingly important component of solar cells, where they act as front electrode elements.The structural templates, diffusion barriers and their work function controls the open circuit voltage(Voc). In this paper, various transparent conductive oxide materials have been studied which are used as the front surface contacts of CdS:O/CdTe based thin film solar cells. Various electrical and optical parameters like work function, thickness, temperature etc., of some common transparent conductive oxides materials such as ZnO, FTO, SnO2etc., are studied. The main idea was to find an optimum conductive oxide layer for CdTe solar cell which shows the great potential in thin film area of solar cell. All the analysis was done by using the widely used simulator Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS 1D). It was observed that both SnO2and ZnOshow similar performance under various conditions. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) has shown the worst performance among them in all conditions. Fluorinated Tin Oxide (FTO) looked promising match for CdTe solar cells in some conditions. - See more at

Vector Representation and Fibonacci Numbers in Molluscan Shells.

The present work describes the growth of a particular species of Molluscan shell in terms of moving vectors. The appearance of Fibonacci numbers in Molluscan shell has been identified. see more

A Review on Immersion System to increase the efficiency of Solar Panels.

A solar cell converts solar optical energy directly in to electrical energy. The major problem related to the solar cell is their lower efficiency. Typically when the surface of the solar panel increases, the efficiency of the solar panel decreases. Generally, a PV module has ideal conversion efficiency in the range of 15%. The remaining energy is converted into heat and this heat increases operating temperature of PV system which affects the electrical power production of PV modules and this can also cause the structural damage of PV modules, which leads to shorting its life span and lowering conversion efficiency. The cell efficiency can be increased by lowering the solar panel into liquid material, so that the temperature can reduce and the efficiency of the solar panel will increase. Another method of lowering the temperature of the panel can be achieved by passing the air continuously with the help of a blower on the rear side of the panel. So the temperature can be lowered and the air can be heated also, so that we can use it as solar air heater. Cooling is the transfer of energy from a space or from a air to space in order to achieve a lower temperature than that of natural surroundings. Temperature control of solar cells at high concentrations is a key issue. Short-term efficiency drop and long-term degradation should be avoided by effective cooling methods. In this communication, we will review to increase the efficiency of the solar panel with immersion system. - See more at: 

Sprouting Suppression and Quality Attributes of Potato Tubers as Affected by Post-Harvest UV-C Treatment under Cold Storage

. Potato (solanumtuberosum, L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops in Egypt,it is considered as a source of national income since the potato crop is exported abroad because it has high quality specification.As a result of its cheap price and different prepared ways, potato is the most consuming crop by domestic consumer.So, the need to maintain the potato quality and preserve the crop without losses, providing good storage conditions after harvest is an important process for inhibiting sprouting, reduce the loss of weight and keeping the quality.The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different doses of ultraviolet light (0, 1.42, 2.14 and 2.85 J/cm2) and different storage conditions (ambient air 45 ? 2oC with 50-60% RH, two cold dark storages, at 8oC?1with 75-82% RH and13oC?1 with 85-92% RH) on inhibition the sprouting of small tubers (60-90g) and big tubers (120-220g) after four months of storage.The analysis of variance(ANOVA) with three replicates (P < 0.05) based on Randomized Complete Block Design(RCBD) was conducted for the statistical analysis. It was concluded that increasing irradiation doses and decreasing storage temperature is good combination for sprouting suppression, reducing weight loss percentage, reducing the increment of soluble solids content, increasing firmness and remaining on the dry matter content almost constant. Only the tubers of non-irradiated treatment under ambient air storage showed percentage of damage. While,10 min irradiation treatment was very low to be effective in sprouting suppression or maintain other quality attributes at all storage temperatures. Exposure of 15 min UV-C is recommended as post-harvest treatment when small tubers are stored at 8oC. Storing tubers at 13oC after high irradiation doses showed very low sprouting weight for small and big tubers. - See more at


When sensitive information is exchanged through wireless communication, it requires remote authentication. The Authentication is obtained by the biometric signal, which is difficult to forge copy and share. The method of steganography is employed in providing the authentication. The biometric signals is encrypted with a video-object and sent. The remote authentication is based on the semantic segmentation, chaotic encryption and data hiding. To authenticate user X remotely, X video-object is extracted then the biometric signal is encrypted by chaotic encryption. The encrypted biometric signal is inserted to the most significant wavelet coefficient of video-object by using QSWT (Qualified Significant Wavelet Tree). QSWT provide invisibility and resistant against lossy transition and compression. Now video-object along with biometric signal is extracted as stego-object which is compressed and sent to receiver. While decryption, IDWT (Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform) is used to retrieve the biometric signal from video-object. One of the challenging problem in decrypting is the biometric signal is not clear for authentication. This loss occurs due to compression of stego-object. To overcome the above issue, Image Coder is used to detect the compression loss and Integrate Region Matching is used to reduce the compression loss. This method provides security in encryption and robustness against steganalytic attacks to various transmission losses and JPEG compression issues. This proposed method of biometric based authentication uses bandwidth in an efficient manner.see more

A Study on Permeability analysis of 3-D Porous Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD

Permeability of scaffold is an important parameter which combines porosity, interconnectivity pore size and shape. It can influence on bone tissue engineering. The intrinsic permeability coefficient k of an open porous structure is ability to measure the fluid flow. Based on number of holes and standard pore diameter, 3D porous geometric models are created using commercial software SOLIDWORKS. In this study we found permeability co-efficient (k) of twelve different models with different shapes using Darcy?s law by satisfying all assumptions. For these models porosity may vary in the range of 20% to 50%.To obtain permeability co-efficient(k), pressure drops are found using CFD analysis for twelve porous models by considering boundary conditions from previous literatures and comparing permeability co-efficient(k) of porous models. - See more at: 


In this paper, we have investigated the nature of locally-rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-V cosmological model in presence of perfect fluid and magnetic flux in general relativity. We have considered the magnetic permeability as variable quantity. The magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along x-axis, F_23 is the only non-vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor F_ij. To get the deterministic solution, it has been assumed that ρ=-p. We also discuss the physical and geometrical properties of model. - See more at: 

Review on Polymer Brush Synthesis Via Controlled Radical Polymerization Technique. -

In this review, we discussed mainly on fabrication of polymer brushes by using controlled radical polymerization technique. Controlled radical polymerization (CRP) techniques provide enormous possibilities for synthesizing well-defined polymers with controlled architectures and molar masses, high graft density with well-distributed polymeric brushes. In fact, we also discussed the atom transfer radical (ATRP) and Reversible fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization. Also, we had discussed the general characterization techniques of polymer brushes. Review could be more useful for researchers in general to understand the polymer brush preparation and its characterization. - See more at: 

Prevention for Black hole attack in MANET using AODV Protocol: Review.

Black hole attack is one of the active DoS attacks possible in MANETs so has got lots of attention by the researchers. Research focus mainly given to securing existing routing protocols, developing new secure routing protocols, and intrusion detection techniques. Researchers have proposed various techniques to prevent black hole attack in mobile ad-hoc networks. Many studies on MANET focus on the protocols used their security issues such as data encryption, authentication, trust, and cooperation among nodes, attacks on the protocols and proposed solutions or preventions. - See more at: 

One Stage Solvent Extraction Synergism for the Purification of Industrial Wet Process Phosphoric Acid to the Food Grade Quality. -

Different organic solvents were investigated, separately or in mixture for example methanol, ethanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol, TEP,D2EHPA, TBP,TOPO and a mixture of TBP plus butanol. Among these solvents, TBP plus butanol proved to be the most efficient solvents mixture. The effect of organic/aqueous phase ratio, temperature, shaking time, settling time and phosphoric acid concentration were studied. Scrubbing of the loaded organic acid was done using 4.2M pure phosphoric acid at an O/A phase ratio of 1:1 while stripping of H3PO4 was performed using distilled water of an O/A phase ratio of 3:1 in one stage. The final recovery of the process is 97.8%. - See more at: 

Experimental Investigations in Pipe Bending Methods: A Literature Review.

This paper intended to explore the aspects of pipe bending for composites material. In current industries such as oil and gas, petro-chemical, and aerospace needs very high quality bended pipes without any defects. There are many different methods for pipe bending. The pipes and tubes can bend in one of several methods depending on what requirement is to use the bend pipes and tubes. So the comparison between pipe bending methods needs to be an identified. In pipe bending process several defects occurs such as Ovality, wrinkling, and wall thinning and thickening. Purpose of this study is to comparing the available methods and finding out the suitable outcomes for the given circumstances. - See more at:


In this paper, we proposed an approach to understand the mechanism of gas adsorption in a microporous solid. This approach is deduced from the concept of flow; the flow of the quantity of material which crosses a closed surface is proportional to the potential adsorbate-adsorbent interaction. For this first study, we used two couples; activated carbon AC35 with ethanol and acetone at the same temperature 30 ? C, in order to over complicate the issue for this first approach. Our study of the adsorption potential as a function of the pore radius allowed us to show that there are two types of interaction forces. The first type active, as in the case of adsorption in micropores and mesopores, and the second is active, as for the macropores and side surfaces of the grains. These findings justify the existence of two models: the Dubinin-Astakov (filling volume), and the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (adsorption layer). Adsorption follows three steps, the micropore filling will occur the first followed by the filling of mesopores and the macropores and finally the surface adsorption corresponds to the side surface of the microporous solid grains. The order in which the filling pore has allowed us to establish the link between the time parameter and the pore radius - See moreat: 

Correlation between serum zinc and mortality in septic patients. -

Objective Activation of acute phase response occurs in initial stage of sepsis, with rapid decline in zinc blood levels for intracellular mobilization to synthesize acute phase proteins. Our study aim was to explore if there is a correlation between serum zinc levels and mortality in septic patients. Design A comparative prospective observational study. Setting Intensive Care Department of Alexandria University Hospitals. Patients 100 patients with proved sepsis according to the Surviving sepsis Campaign guidelines and in need for ICU admission. Methods Patients were followed up for 28 days. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score were calculated in every patient using the data at enrollment. Venous blood samples were obtained on admission for determination of a panel of markers including serum lactate, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin level, and serum zinc levels. All parameters were correlated with mortality. Results APACHE II score, SOFA score, serum lactate, CRP, procalcitonin, and serum zinc could predict mortality without significant statistical difference in-between, (p ? 0.05). There was an inverse statistical correlation between serum zinc levels and all other studied parameters Conclusion Low serum zinc levels may be one of the predictors of mortality in septic patients. - See more at: 

A Comparative Study ofAmphotericinB Versus Miltefosine Regarding Efficacy and safety profile in Pediatric Cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

From the treatment point of view many drugs have been tried with various efficacyin visceral leishmaniasis.Objectives:The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of intravenous amphotericin B and oral miltefosine in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children. Materials and methods: In this study 60 consecutive diagnosed cases of kalaazar were studied in pediatric indoor ward of J.L.N. Medical College & Hospital Bhagalpur. All thecases included in study, randomly divided into two groups A and B with equal no. of patients ( 30 in each ) in both groups. Patients of group A were given intravenous Amphotericin B in the dose schedule of 1mg/kgon alternate day for 15 doses. Patients of group B were given oral miltefosine in dose schedule of 2.5mg /kg daily for 28 days.During the therapy, clinical and parasitological response and safety profiles of the drugs in both groups were closely monitored. Conclusion: ? Both the drugs i.e. Amphotericin B as well as Miltefosine had been observed as equally efficacious in causing clinical as well as parasitological cure in pediatric cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no sufficient toxicity developed in either group and so they are equally safe in children ? - See more at: 

Systematic wayto incorporate Operational research in health care system.

OR gives scientific evidences for programs concerning furtherance of health and controlling disease; which enhances the program quality, success and learning as program accentuates. Collaboration between, global fund to fight AIDS, TB, Malaria, special program for research and training in tropical disease (TDR) and interagency technical working groups gave rise to the framework for operations and implementation research in health and disease control programs. These programs were aimed at standardization of OR practices across international community and its integration with health programs. These agencies recommend appropriate use of framework for integration of OR in a systemic way, between programs and agencies, so that learning quality and success of health services may be enhanced as program accentuates. OR should be incorporated as necessary part of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) efforts, so that M\\\'OR\\\'E (Monitoring and Evaluation in OR) may prove to be a fresh prototype to method for including research, evaluation, monitoring as single component into program management systems. It strengthens program implementation as well as help in effective use of M and E resources. - See moreat: 


Background: Herbicides have been used widely and intensively in agricultural areas around the globe to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides are causing serious environmental problems and may possess critical risks on treated agricultural crops. Materials and Methods: The study was designed to investigate the effects of biocides (azadirachta) treatment at different concentrations (0, 5, and 10) on few chemical constituents in plant leaves. Furthermore, the study also illustrated the extent to which an organic fertilizer could enhance deleterious impact of azadirachta indicia on plant growth. Lastly, in this study, lab experiments were performed on rats to examine influence of leaf on their liver function.The results were determined by one way Anova analysis of variance . Results: This study exhibits that low and high of Azadirachtin produced significant increase in total and soluble sugar content, compared with normal and fertilizer treated groups. Synchronized treatment of fertilizer with Azadirachtin in low and high dose showed significant increase in total and soluble content in contrast to normal and fertilizer groups. However, there is an exception of significant decrease in total sugar with high dose of Azadirachtin. Proline contents significantly increased in fertilizer treated group, while contents decrease significantly in other treated groups compared with normal and fertilizer. Chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B significantly increased in fertilizer treated groups. Low and high dose of Azadirachtin induced significant decrease in chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B content when compared with fertilizer treated group. High dose of Azadirachtin and low dose with fertilizer treated groups induced significant decrease in carotein content. Rats in all treated groups were observed with significant level of increase in AST activity with high dose of Azadirachtin group. LDH activity increased significantly in high dose of Azadirachtin . Total protein level, significant decrease was recorded in low dose of Azadirachtin group . Significant increase was observed in high dose of Azadirachtin alone, and in both high and low doses with fertilizer groups Conclusions: The study argued that biocides have their impacts on plant leaves. Hence, it is necessary to stay aware of chemical types applied on crops. Awareness should not limit to environmental contamination and toxicity, but their effects on crops should also be considered to obtain good quality of agricultural products for healthy consumption. The current investigation adequately proves that azadirachta indicia leaves are an effective heptaprotective agent at low dose. - See more at: 


With regards to management of Alternaria and Cercospora leaf spot diseases of chilli, lowest per cent disease index was observed in combination spray of Tilt 25% EC @ 0.05% + Eucalyptus spp. @ 10% + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 5g/ lt which was followed by spray with Tilt 25% EC @ 0.05% + P. fluorescens@ 5g/ lt. Plant height was maximum (at 75 and 105 day after transplanting) in treatment with combination spray of Tilt 25% EC @ 0.05% + Eucalyptus spp. @ 10% + P. fluorescens @ 5g/ lt which was followed by spray with Tilt 25% EC @ 0.05% + P. fluorescens @ 5g/ lt. Number of fruits infected per plant was found less in treatment with combination spray of Tilt 25% EC @ 0.05% + Eucalyptus spp. @ 10% + P. fluorescens @ 5g/ lt which was followed by spray with Tilt 25% EC @ 0.05% + P. fluorescens @ 5g/ lt. The maximum yield (286.67 g/plant) was recorded in treatment Tilt 25% EC@ 0.05% + Eucalyptus spp. @ 10% + P. fluorescens@ 5g/ lt. which was on par with treatment Tilt 25% EC@ 0.05% + P. fluorescens@ 5g/ lt. (273.33 g/plant). - See more at

Survey of diseases of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha. -

Linseed disease survey was conducted in the district of Mayurbhanj in Odisha from 2000-2001 to 2008-2009 for nine years. The incidence of wilt, Alternaria blight, powdery mildew and rust was nil to 7.6 %, nil to 80.0 %, nil to 20.0 % and nil to 32.7 %, respectively over the years. Plant pathological research programme and resistance breeding should be resorted to combat Alternaria blight disease so that productivity of linseed remains stabilized. -See more at: 

Micronutrient Research in India: Extent of deficiency, crop responses and future challenges.

Green revolution has greatly increased the food crop production in India, but continuous cultivation of high yielding crop varieties have led to depletion of native micronutrient soil fertility and now most of the soils are showing sign of fatigue for sustaining higher crop production to meet the increasing food demand of the country. In the post-Green Revolution period, deficiencies of zinc (Zn) and boron (B) have constrained sustainable growth in productivity of several field crops. Among micronutrients, Zn deficiency was found widespread in Indian soils. Analysis of soils samples from different states of India indicated that on an average 44, 33, 15, 13, 8 and 6% of the samples were deficient in available Zn, B, iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), respectively. Extensive micronutrient deficiencies lead to decline in factor productivity even with balanced NPK fertilization. Although the crop response to micronutrients application varies with soil type, crops and genotype, agro-climatic conditions and severity of deficiency, an enormous response to micronutrient fertilization has been reported in a wide variety of crops including horticultural crops across the country. The results indicated that soil application of 5 to 10 kg Zn ha-1 before sowing is the most suitable method to manage Zn deficiency. The most effective method to ameliorate Fe deficiency is to apply 3-4 foliar sprays of 0.5 to 1.0% ferrous sulphate in standing crop at an interval of 10 days. For management of Mn deficiency 3-4 foliar applications of 0.5-1.0% manganese sulphate are economical than soil application of 40-50 kg Mn ha-1. Response of crops to B application (0.5-2.5 kg B ha-1) was observed on boron deficient soils. The soil application of boron is a better method of fertilization than foliar application or seed soaking. - See more at: 


Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify the marginal leakage of two glass-ionomer cements using spectrophotometer. Method and materials: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on 60 extracted human maxillary permanent first premolars, randomly assigned to two groups of 30 teeth each, group A and group B. Group A was restored with Zirconomer and group B was restored with GC Fuji IX Extra. Teeth were subjected to thermocycling and stained with methylene blue. The microleakage was quantified spectrophotometrically and the data were statistically analyzed with Student t test. Results: Restorations of both the materials showed some microeakage in Class V cavities and there were no significant differences statistically. Conclusion: The sealing ability of GC Fuji IX Extra was much better than Zirconomer and GC Fuji IX Extra exhibit better shade matching compared to Zirconomer at cervical area of the teeth. - See more at: 


Background and study aims:- nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common liver diseases. It progresses to liver cirrhosis with the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Multiple hits theory in NAFLD progression indicates that genetic factors are important. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has an essential role in the regulation of adipocyte-specific genes and lipid and glucose metabolism. We aimed at evaluating the role of PPAR-gamma single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NAFLD and predicting its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Material and methods:- Fifty obese patients with NAFLD preliminary diagnosed by liver ultra-sound were recruited. Full medical history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical studies, liver biopsy for the NAS score to identify NASH patients and the presence of fibrosis and assessment of SNPs of C681G, C689T and C34G of PPAR-gamma by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragmented length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were conducted for each patient. Thirty ages matched average weight healthy adult had been chosen as controls. Results:- The GG genotype of C681G was higher in cases (18%) than in control (10%) and also of C34G was higher in cases (12%) than in control (3.3%). The TT genotype of C689T was higher in cases (6%) than in control (0%). The GG genotype of C681G was higher in NASH group (19.4%) than in non NASH group (14.3%). Conclusion:- PPAR?gamma genetic polymorphism (C681G, C689T and C34G) was raised in patients with NAFLD and also of (C681G and C34G) was raised in cases with NASH but didn?t reach statistical significance.. - See more at: 

Evaluation of Water Quality Index for the Groundwater in region around Buddha Nallah, Punjab, India. -

Buddha Nallah is a natural water stream. It passes through Ludhiana, which is industrial town of Punjab. Effluents from industries and domestic area joins stream and cause pollution. Pollution in stream leads to ground water pollution of nearby region. Study was conducted to evaluate water quality index (WQI) of ground water in region around Buddha Nallah in Punjab in districts Rupnagar and Ludhiana, India. Water quality index was determined by taking ground water samples from different sites during four different months over span of one year and analyzing the samples for various physico-chemical parameters. For evaluating WQI, eleven water quality features were studied; pH, total hardness, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, phosphate, chloride and alkalinity. Results for WQI of samples studied varies from 49.83 to 224.96. Results clearly shows that in industrial town Ludhiana, ground water is polluted. WQI results were further used to predicting ground water quality of area studied. - See more at: 


Introduction:-The previouslydescribed condition of localized juvenile periodontitis has been replaced by the term localized aggressive periodontitis. This condition presents a classic pattern and occurs in healthy children and adolescents without clinical evidence of systemic disease. It is characterized by the rapid and severe loss of alveolar bone around more than one permanent tooth, usually the first molars and incisors. Case report:- A 13-year-old female presented with clinical and radiographic evidence of severe attachment loss around several permanent teeth. She had no history of systemic disease, periodontal disease, or caries prior to the periodontal abscess that prompted her referral. Conclusion:- The early diagnosis and the management of these cases can help dentist to maintain the health and function of the permanent teeth and their surrounding structures. - See more at: 


The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the primary dentition ranges from 11%?30%, but the incidence of dilacerated permanent teeth is very low and disproportionate to high prevalence of trauma. Hence, traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are unlikely to account for all cases of dilaceration and especially those of primary teeth themselves. An idiopathic developmental disturbance to deciduous dentition is proposed as another possible cause in cases that have no clear evidence of traumatic injury. The prime objective of the present article is to discuss cases of dilaceration in the deciduous anterior teeth and review the previous studies on dilacerations of the deciduous dentition. - See more at: 


Meizotropis pellita (Fabaceae family), an endangered plant commonly known as Patwa was screened for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The antimicrobial activity was determined in alcoholic and aqueous extract using agar well diffusion method. The alcoholic extracts have shown antimicrobial activity while aqueous extract was inactive against all the tested bacterial strains. E.coli was the most resistant strain while Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were most sensitive bacterial strains. The results of the study suggest that the plant contain some important bioactive compounds which can be used for development of new herbal drugs. -See more at: 


Endodontists have frequently boasted they can do much of their work blindfolded simply because there is ?nothing to see.? The truth of the matter is that there is a great deal to see if only we had the right tools. And now clinicians have recognized that the use of magnification can improve the performance of dental procedures. This article reviews and describes application of surgical operating microscopes emphasizing its importance in endodontic treatment . Its introduction into dentistry in the last fifteen years, particularly in endodontics, has revolutionized how endodontics is practiced worldwide. - See more at: 

Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects of Zinc oxide nanoparticals in alloxan-Induced Diabetes Rats.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) of average diameter of 45 ? 5.0 nm were prepared using chemical reduction method and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transmission Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To test the ability of ZnONPs to ameliorate antihyperglycemic and the oxidative stress status resulted in experimental diabetic rats induced by alloxan, sixty male albino rats with weight 220 ? 25 grams and age of 9 months were used in experimental design. Ten of them were served as control group and fifty rats were injected with alloxan at the single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg. Then, subdivided into, diabetic, diabetic rats + ZnONPs I, received single daily dose of 2.5 mg/kg b.w ZnONPs in suspension. Diabetic rats + ZnONPs II, received a single daily dose of 5.0mg/kg b.w ZnONPs in suspension , diabetic rats + ZnONPs III, received a single daily dose of 10 mg/kg b.w ZnONPs in suspension, diabetic rats + insulin; received a single daily subcutaneous dose of insulin 2U/kg b.w. At the end of experimental time(60 days) the blood glucose, serum insulin,glycoslated HbA1c, lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and serum activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Catalase (Cat) were determined. Results showed a significant alteration in the activities of SOD, GPx, CAT, MDA Insulin, HbA1c and FBS in animals treated of ZnONPs, compared with diabetic or diabetic + insulin group and their control group. The profound control of ZnONPs over the anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation during hyperglycemia evidence their antioxidant effect during diabetes. The administration of ZnONPs at 10 mg/kg b.w exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic rats near to the control group provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the ZnONPs over the vital organs and can be used to ameliorate the hyperglycemia and oxidative stress status. - See more at: 


Airway management is core for an anesthesiologist. Airway difficulties during induction of general anesthesia are a concern for anesthesiologists. Hence a good clinical judgment is important for selecting the method for airway intervention. In patients of Mallampatti classification - IV or reduced mouth opening there are three methods for securing the airway. The most advanced and recommended method is awake nasal intubation using fibro-optic bronchoscope. The second option is retrograde intubation. The last method is blind nasal intubation. This method was regularly used to intubate patients of nil mouth opening before the fibro-optic bronchoscope was introduced. In experienced hands of an anesthesiologist, this is a very good method to secure the airway. It requires very little time compared to the first two methods and does not require expensive instruments. In today?s time blind nasal intubation is not performed regularly as the modern anesthesiologists are more dependent on instruments such as video- laryngoscope etc. However in centers where such expensive instruments are not available or in remote centers, blind nasal intubation can be the key for securing the airway for patients with difficult airway. Here we report a patient who is a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek with reduced mouth opening posted for right wide excision of lip with forehead flap sos radical neck dissection managed with blind nasal intubation. - See more at: 


Congenital tarsal coalition is a diagnosis that is often overlooked in young patients who first present with foot and ankle pain. Tarsal coalition is an abnormal fibrous, cartilaginous or osseous fusion of two or more tarsal bones [1]. The prevailing etiologic theory for congenital coalitions is failure of complete segmentation of mesenchyme with the absence of normal joint formation. Approximately 50%?80% of cases of tarsal coalition are bilateral [2] and more than 90% of coalitions are located between the calcaneus and the navicular or between the talus and calcaneus [3]. Calcaneonavicular and talocalcaneal coalitions have been reported to occur in approximately equal frequency [4]. However, recent investigations suggest that calcaneonavicular coaltions occur 3 times more frequently [5]. - See more at: 

Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis by Image Analysis Software in relation to Physiological Markers. -

Background: The chronic liver disease is one of the most deadly diseases in Egypt and around the world; perfect diagnosis methods are urgently needed. The proper assessment of liver fibrosis offers acute information for both perfect diagnosis and accurate therapeutic decision-making. Although digital image analysis (DIA) is a promising method for quantitative assessment of liver fibrosis, it has not been fully evaluated in practice yet. The present study was designed to explore the possibilities of using open access image analysis software (ImageJ) for accurate quantitative assessment of liver fibrosis. Methods: This study investigated the use of digital images analysis by software ImageJ of liver sections stained by sirius red (SR). Reproducibility of this technique was tested in comparison with the a semi-quantitative score of liver fibrosis as well as other markers of fibrosis including physiological markers of liver functions such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, it was tested compared to serum marker collagen IV (Col IV) and hepatic hydroxyproline. Results: From physiological point of view; hepatic hydroxyproline, serum Col IV and ALT showed higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity than other physiological markers with area under curve (AUC) of 0.935, 0.955 and 0.902 respectively. On the other hand, DIA of SR by ImageJ software had shown the best accuracy with AUC of 1.0. In conclusions: our novel data prove that the use of ImageJ with semiautomatic color segmentation is a reliable and practical way of measuring collagen proportionate area. - See moreat

Perceptions towards evidence based practice among oral health professionalsin Mangalore, India. -

Background:-Evidence based practice (EBP) is a way to transfer evidence obtained from research into everyday provision of health care services. A dentist should not only know about the sources to obtain evidence, but also be able to critically assess the mountain of research studies available. This study was aimed to determine EBP knowledge, attitudes, confidence in critical appraisal skills and methods for accessing evidence among oral health professionals in Mangalore, India. Material and method:-We used a standardized and validated 36 item EBP KACE (Knowledge, Attitudes, Confidence and Evidence) questionnaire which consisted of 4 domains, Knowledge of Critical Appraisal, Attitudes about Evidence-Based Practice, Confidence in Critical Appraisal Skills and Accessing Evidence. Statistical analysis was performed using student?s t test, binary logistic regression and bivariate correlation tests. Results:-A total of 133 males and 231 females took part in the study (n=364). Participants were divided into interns, postgraduate students and specialists. Mean knowledge of postgraduates (2.45; SD 1.2) was highest. Attitudes levels were similar for postgraduates (4.4; SD 2.5) and undergraduates (4.7; SD 2.6). Postgraduate students were more aware of newer methods of accessing evidence (4.1; SD 2.0) (p < 0.01) compared to others. Conclusions:-Postgraduates had greater knowledge of EBP and better ideas of ways to access evidence. The undergraduates showed a positive attitude and interest towards evidence based practice. Hence, making evidence based practice a formalized part of dental curriculum would enable young dentists to make optimal treatment decisions essential in the interest of the patient as well as the community. - See moreat:

Association of TGF-β1 Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy in Saudi Patients.

Diabetic nephropathy is the common process that is leading to ESRD. Several studies showed that TGF-β is a major anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in extracellular matrix deposition and thickening of basement membrane of glomeruli. This study is aimed to evaluating the association of TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms (869T/C) and (509C/T) with complicated and uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 250 Saudi male classified into; 100 healthy males as control, 80 uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus male patients and 70 type 2 diabetes mellitus male patients with nephropathy. Blood and urine samples were collected from all groups for measurement of plasma glucose, urea, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, urea, creatinine and TGF-β1. In addition a genotyping of TGF-β1 was done. Results: our results showed a statistical difference in TGF-β1 levels in all groups, also a positive correlation between hyperglycemia and HbA1c with TGF-β1 level was detected. According genotype, only 869T/C genotypes are involved in susceptibility to T2DM and diabetic nephropathy. Both TC and CC genotype are higher in T2DM patients compared with control (P<0.05), while only CC is higher in diabetic nephropathic patients compared with uncomplicated T2DM (P<0.05). Conclusion: an increase TGF-β level may be involved in processes of T2DM development and its nephropathic complication. In addition, the TC and CC genotypes of TGF-β1 869T/C are more susceptible to T2DM, while only CC genotype to diabetic nephropathy.see more

Field screening of linseed genotypes for resistance to wilt in the north central plateau zone of Odisha -

Two hundred ninety two genotypes of linseed including 61 local land races of Odisha and 231 cross-derivatives and selections from different sources within and outside Odisha were field-screened for resistance to wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Bolley) Snyder and Hansen. The result revealed 65, 45 and 37 genotypes under immune, resistant and moderately resistant categories, respectively. - See more at: 


Current status of tribal population as reported 2011 census is 8.6% of the nation total population, whereas the tribal population of Maharashtra is 8.6 million. Tribal population of Buldhana District is 115,000(Revenue division TRTI,Pune)Buldana District falls under Amravati division. It was of profound interest to assess nutritional status of the adolescent tribal. However in journal data are scanty on the anthropometry and nutritional status of various tribal populations of India. For Anthropometry body weight in kg, height in centimeters was measured. Further data of height and weight was subjected to calculations values express with means standard deviation and compared with NCHS standard deriving difference results presented in tabularly and graphically. Data was further subjected to BMI values expressed with means and standard deviation. BMI categories were observed by classifying data of BMI and values expressed with percentage. Data on anthropometry revealed that both male and females adolescent were falling short of height as less weight compared to the NCHS standard. Classification of subjects based BMI revealed that irrespective of sex and age groups, a major percentage was falling in normal weight category, followed by under weight category. It has been recently suggested that there is urgent need to evaluate the nutritional status of various tribes in India. (Bose and Chakraborti, 2005, Bose et al 2006). - See more at: 


: Nutrition education is known to be important tool for improving the dietary pattern of the community. World Health Organization(WHO)has defined adolescent as the age between 10 to 19 years. Health scenario of the population would remain incomplete if adolescent group is excluded.About 80% of the tribal in India live in remote forest areas and hilly regions ,without an access to the modern socio economic inputs. Current status of tribal population as reported 2011 census is 8.6% of the nation total population, whereas the tribal population of Maharashtra is 8.6 million. Tribal population of Buldana District is 115,000(Revenue division TRTI,Pune)Buldana District falls under Amravati division. Present study determines the effect of nutrition education on the tribal. A pre survey was conducted to impart nutrition education and post was conducted to see the effect of nutrition education. Five questions were framed like (Use of fresh vegetable and fruits. Use of Multi grain flour. Method of germination. Use of Milk and Milk product. Method of Fermentation.) pre and post responses received. Purposes sampling method was use to collect data interview and questionnaire was used to collect information A positive effect of nutrition education was observed to improve the nutritional health and status of tribal’s, the nutritionist and dietitians should extensively carry nutritional educational programme in the adjoining tribal area. - See more at

Physiological responses of seaweeds extracts, benzyl adenine and paclobutrazol of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Misr 1) plants.

This study was carried out during season of 2014/2015 at Botanical garden, Botany and Microbiology Dept., Fac. of sci., Al-Azhar Univ., Nasr City, Cairo to investigate the effect of certain algal extracts at 2g/l and 4g/l (Sargassum latifolium, Ulva rigida and Corallina elongate), Benzyladenine at 200 ppm and Paclobutrazol at 50 ppm on growth and metabolism of wheat plants. Increases in shoot length, root length and fresh and dry weights of both shoots and roots in response to all treatments. Data showed, general improvement in all yield parameters as result of algae extracts, BA and significant increases in yield of wheat plants in case of foliar treatment with pac. 50 ppm. The highest value of weight of 100 seeds is 227% and No. of seeds/plant is 136% in treated plants with Pacl. (50 ppm) as compared to control Photosynthetic pigments (chl. a, chl. b and chl. a+b) and carotenoids generally, decreased in response to all Ulva doses, Sarg. and BA 200 ppm. However, treated plants with Corallina increased pigment contents of wheat plants. With respect to Pacl. 50 ppm, chlorophylls and carotenoids significantly increased at stage 2 and decreased at stage 1.Carbohydrate contents of shoots decreased at stage 1 and increased at second stage of growth in response to all applied substances however, protein contents appeared approximate decreases in shoots of wheat plants as a result of both sea weeds, BA 200 ppm and Pacl. 50 ppm0 . Hydrolytic enzymes decreased at stage 1 and increased at the second stage of growth. Carbohydrates and phenols contents of yielded seeds of wheat plants decreased significantly in response to all applied substances in contrast, proteins in most cases increased in response to all used treatments. - See more at: 


To implement ways to improve learning in small groups, interacting with them specifically in clinical and practical skill development and assessing them to improve the quality of learning and teaching. Post graduates play a key role in becoming a future Teacher. - See more at: 

Impression of Esthetics with Removable Partial Dentures - A Review.

Removable partial denture is a revolting modality of treatment that we still must rely upon for certain cases and is a part of the practice. The increased emphasis on physical appearance in modern society has enlarged the demand for esthetic dental restorations. Although the success of implant dentistry has expanded the scope of esthetic fixed prostheses, many patients demand a removable partial denture (RPD) for health, anatomic, psychological, or financial reasons. This article thus focuses on the esthetic aspects that a dentist must place importance upon during the designing and manufacture of prosthesis to provide the attractive outcome. - See more at: 

Saturday, 28 May 2016


Objective:- To examine the effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone on vagina and endometrium specially on symptoms and signs of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Material and Method:- Study was conducted on 128 postmenopausal women between 40-75 year of age, presented with symptoms of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunction. Vaginal pH was determined, vaginal smear was examined for maturation index and maturation value, and endometrial biopsy was taken before and after intravaginal application of 0.5%DHEA ovules daily for 12 weeks. Results:- With DHEA, symptoms of sexual dysfunctions decreased significantly in 67% women (p<0.05), vaginal symptoms improved in 60% women (p<0.05).Vaginal pH was decreased by 1.1?0.06 unit (p<0.0001). Percentage of case with pH≤5 was increased to 79% from 34%, of parabasal cells decreased from 59.84?2.0 to 30.59?0.98 (p<0.0001) and of superficial cells increased by 8.66?0.18 (p<0.0001), maturation value increased by 20?0.63 (p<0.0001). Endometrial biopsy seen at the start of treatment remained unaffected by DHEA. Conclusion:- DHEA has many benefits of estrogen, with no side effects, and helps women with vaginal atrophy to stimulate the cellular growth of the vaginal wall and increase vaginal secretion, thus restoring the vagina to its youthful condition. - See more at: 


CHANGES OF S. CARDIAC MARKERS AFTER ACUTE ATTACK OF MI BACKGROUND: Blood testing for biomarkers of myocardial injury plays an important role for the evaluation, diagnosis, and triage of patients with chest pain. The criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction have been redefined recently, as reported in a document of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and require at least 2 of the 3 following characteristics: (1) typical symptoms; (2) characteristic rise-and-fall pattern of a cardiac markers or (3) a typical electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern involving the development of Q waves. Currently serum troponins, can now detect extremely small amounts of myonecrosis (<1.0 g), which, in the setting of an ACS, may be associated with increased risk of complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients are selected from those attending department of medicine, G.G. Hospital, M.P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar. Blood samples of patients were taken to measure the serum LDH, Troponin I, CRP, CK-MB levels by ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) and their levels are compared with clinical condition, ECG changes and prognosis of the patients. RESULT: Out of 100 patients studied 70 patients were in age group 40-70yrs, 74 patients were having history of hyper tension and 55 patients were having complaint of chest pain were diagnosed as having acute MI. CONCLUSION: Troponins are ideal markers which enable early detection of patients with acute coronary syndrome whereas inflammation markers are helpful in diagnosis and assessing the severity of inflammation - See more at: 


Background:- A variety of techniques have been developed to separate motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa from other constituents of the ejaculate to optimize successful assisted reproductive techniques. Objectives:- To compare the asthenozoospermic semen outcomes of three in vitro sperm activation (ISA) techniques and evaluate the efficacy, namely; Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) technique, Glass wool filtration technique and Max pure technique(combination of DGC and GWF techniques). Methods:- Forty three infertile men with asthenozoospermia were involved in this study. Sperm parameters assessed according to WHO (2010 and 1999). Post- activation of each sample divided into three aliquots, the first one using DGC, the second using GWF, and last one using Max pure technique. Results:- A significant increase (P<0.05) of sperm motility, progressive sperm motility and normal sperm morphology when using Max pure technique as compared to DGC and GWF techniques. Also, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) for the same parameters when using DGC technique as compared to the GWF technique. Conclusions:- Using Max pure technique for semen sample with decreased in the sperm motility were superior to that of DGC and GWF techniques. - See more at: 


Background:- Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties. Many studies demonstrated that polymorphisms within the adiponectin gene could be associated in T2DM with and without CVD. Methods:- A case-control study was conducted to find the association between SNP rs266729 in T2DM with and without CVD in Al-Najaf Governorate, Iraq. The study included 203 T2DM patients with CVD randomly selected based on World Health Organization (WHO) guideline and 133 T2DM patients without CVD as controls group. DNA was extracted from blood and genotyped by PCR-RFLP by using (Hha1) enzyme. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to compare the proportions of genotypes and alleles. The odds ratio for risk of developing CVD in T2DM was calculated with and without adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Results:- The frequency of G allele of rs266729 (C/G) polymorphism was significantly lower (p=0.0001) in T2DM with CVD (27.3%) compared to that without CVD (33.08%). The homozygous genotype (GG) significantly (0R=7.570, CI 95%(1.597-32.530), P= 0.011) increased the risk of T2DM with CVD seven folds with respect to those of the wild type (CC) after adjustment age, sex, and BMI, furthermore the heterozygous (CG) genotype significantly [0R=2.818,CI 95%(1.00-12.596), P= 0.050] raised the risk of T2DM with CVD by two folds. Homozygous and heterozygous genotypes of rs266729 polymorphism exhibited significant association with decreased adiponectin levels (P= 0.08). Conclusion:- Adiponectin gene polymorphism rs266729 is involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM with CVD. In addition this SNP may play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome by affecting HDL and adiponectin levels. - See more at: 

Biomarkers, Methods for Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer.

Irritation expects a separating part in different sorts of advancement and is known prohibited in their presentation and progress. Like this, it is in a matter of seconds saw as a vital danger part of a few sorts of diseases, for the case, ?bladders, prostrate and Breast?improvements. The disclosure of a novel technique for affirmation Breast hurt malady in the investigation office Moreover in easing mixes can have the colossal repercussions for the treatment of advancement and, likewise, preventive and mindful treatment modalities. Breast improvement is the most every now and again analyzed risk and the second driving reason behind tumor-related passings. Updated insight of Breast tumorigenesis may improve the movement of all the more serious prescriptions. The clinical and over the top qualities of this Breast improvement subtype is not yet totally gotten on. This study was given a development of essential, preclinical and clinical studies. As a sure biomarker of reaction to a Breast risk, we recognized this acumen reaction of tumor cells in the Breast. - Seemore at: 

Should local health decision makers? use programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) as a basis for priority setting?

Decision makers in health care have to constantly face the problem of allocating resources judiciously. In the face of competing demands for healthcare, decision makers need to prioritise which interventions to fund. Countries around the world are trying to make these allocations decisions based on explicit framework. At a national or country level, decisions are taken under certain rules and regulations. But many times, local decision makers need to prioritise among different interventions. In these cases, the article looks at Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) as an explicit priority setting framework for the local level. The author looks into the reasons behind the need for an explicit priority setting framework, the principles and steps of PBMA and how it is helpful at the local level. - See more at

Insulin augmentation and glucagon inhibition in cinnamon treated diabetic rats. -

To clarify if changing the diet helps to prevent development of diabetes, the current study aimed to provide the immunomodulatory effect of cinnamon (CN) in improving the histological picture in the pancreatic tissue in diabetic rats. This improving picture were visualized in the well-organized islets containing increased number of ? cells, ? cells appeared with normal chromatin distribution and normal cellular population. CN administration to alloxan diabetic rats reduced serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol levels and boosting the immune system by increasing HDLcholesterol levels and insulin expression. In conclusion, the regular intake of CN in the daily diet may show many immunological benefits. - See more at: 


Children growth and development is continuous process. The developmental progression of self esteem through once life span has beautifully explained in psychosocial theory by Eric Erikson ?A study to evaluate the effectiveness of creative art on self esteem among physically disabled children in special school at Mysore? 60 samples were selected experimental and control group, using non probability purposive sampling technique. The sample of the study comprised children studying special school (Deaf and Dum) with the age group of 10-14 years, those who are fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Data collection was done by using self esteem inventory scale to assess the self esteem among special school children. In the analysis Experimental group? paired ?t? test computed between mean pretest and post test level of self esteem was significant at 0.05 level. Calculated ?t? value 23.74 greater than ?t? Table valuet29=2.05. Creative art can provide the children easier way to express the self esteem themselves as they are more naturally, artistic and creative, as a parents respect the children?s activities and encourage in positive ways especially physically challenged children. - See more at: 

Simultaneous Quantification of T-Cell Receptor Excision Circles (TRECs) and K-Deleting Recombination Excision Circles (KRECs) by Real-time PCR. -

Background: The clinical experience gathered throughout the years endorses primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) awareness and guides research into newborn screening and future therapeutic strategies.Combined T-cell receptor excision circle levels (TRECs) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) assay paves the way to new potential applications in this field. Objectives: We aimed to establish a technique for quantification of TRECs and KRECs in Egyptian individuals in our laboratory and to set a lower threshold of normal for TRECs and KRECs in pediatric population for different age groups as a start for its implementation in newborn screening protocols for PIDs. Methods: 50 apparently healthy children (25 males and 25 females) with age ranging from 1 day to 16 years were analyzed..Combined quantification of TRECs and KRECs in the genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed using real-time quantitative PCR. Results: Individuals in the study were divided in to 5 different age groups Data regarding lower threshold of normal for TRECs and KRECs copies per ml of blood among the study group was obtained. A highly significant negative correlation between TRECs and KRECs, both calculated per 106 PBMCs and per ml of blood and age was observed. On the contrary, there was no statistically significant differences in the studied parameters between males and females when evaluated regardless of age (p value=0.697). Conclusion: It appeared that it is technically feasible to introduce the TRECs/KRECs quantitation by real time PCR into routine laboratory practice to be used in the near future both for new born screening for PIDs - See more at:


INTRODUCTION:The incidence of fracture around hip has increased a lot with gradual increase in general life expectancy of the population. The fracture around hip accounts for about one third of all hospitalized patients. Among the different type of fractures around hip extracapsular fracture of proximal end femur are most common. The incidence is more than the fracture femoral neck proper. In elderly, 90% of extracapsular fracture results from trivial injury while in young adult it results from high energy trauma like motor vehicle accident. The incidence of extracapsular fracture in elderly is more than fracture in young adult because of several factors like osteoporosis, decreased muscle power, poor vision. These fractures are associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality and account for a large amount of expenditure in the treatment. Now days mode of treatment is changing from conservative to surgical, so it need to study different treatment modality forextracapsular fracture ofproximal femur. AIM AND OBJECTIVE:To assess and evaluate different surgicalmodality of management in extracapsular fracture of proximal femur. MATERIAL AND METHOD:This was prospective analytic study, conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, D.M.C.H., Laheriasarai, Darbhanga in year 2007 to 2010. Total 32 Cases were selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria. Out of 32 cases, 12 cases were treated with PFN and 20 with DHS. All the operations were done under image intensifier control. Follow up of the patients were done up to 48th postoperative weeks for the assessment of functional and anatomical result. OBSERVATION AND RESULT:Present series is of 32 cases, of it 43.75% were male and 56.25% were female, Average age was 50-70 years. Most common mode of injury was trivial injury/minor slip comprising 46.87% patients in which 31.25% female and 15.62% male. Second commonest mode of injury was Road Traffic accident comprising 25%, in which 15.62% were male and 9.37% were female. The # was classified by EVAN’S classification, 59.37% cases were of stable fracture, 28.12 of unstable type and 12.50% were subtrochanteric type fracture. # were reduced under image intensifier and fixed with D.H.S or P.F.N. by 3rd postoperative weeks, in PFN group 91.66% of cases were partial weight bearing with crutches, But in DHS group by 6th postoperative weeks 75% of cases partial weight bearing with help of crutches, full weight bearing in P.F.N group was 12-18 wk and in D.H.S group it was 18-24 wk. 8% in P.F.N group and 15% in D.H.S group had superficial infection while 10% in D.H.S group had deep infection, no deep infection in P.F.N group. CONCLUSION:In PFN group patients, blood loss and soft tissue dissection was less as compared to DHS group patients.Within first 3 months PFN allowed a faster postoperative restoration of walking ability as compared to DHS. It was found that there was no major difference between PFN and DHS treatment group long term follow-up in clinical and radiological features. - See more at: